- a boy aged about 18 was lying on the floor. → Lying on the floor was a boy aged 18.
- Deeply involved with this new technology is a breed of modern business people who have a growing respect for the economic value of doing business abroad. 与新技术息息相关的是一些现代商人，他们日益看重国外生意的经济价值。
- Reaching new peaks of popularity in North America is Iceberg water which is harvested from icebergs off the coast of Newfoundland. 萃取自加拿大纽芬兰沿岸冰山的“冰水”在北美的受欢迎程度一再创出新高。
① A comes as B :在B的背景下，发生了A
such comment came as China’s foreign reserves last month.
② Given+that从句；Given+n.【given: 考虑到(原因)；倘若（假设）】
Given a continued economic slowdown, China is promoting an overhaul on SOEs to revitalize the public sector.
The marriage disintegrated amid allegations that she was having an affair.
Crashing prices for coal amid China’s economic slowdown and US investors’preference for newer, less polluting energy technology has hit the industry hard in both countries.
④ Which 非限定从
The rally in Japan was prompted by weaker than expected growth figures, which led to speculation that the Bank of Japan would also step in to shore up the economy.
⑤ factor behind+背景原因=reason behind:重要原因，关键因素
Population increase is also a major factor behind China’s relative slowness in establishing universal secondary school education.
⑥ a mixture of A and B
The decline of marriage is a mixture of economic insecurity and women’s lack of emancipation.
Plunging crude prices and continuing liabilities emanating from the Gulf of Mexico oil spill in 2011 led BP to report a record.
⑧sth has left sb with sth:表达前因后果
Thecombination of this oversupply and Italy’s long recession has left Italian banks with among the lowest returns on equity in the euro zone.
The share prices of big French telecoms companies plunged following the collapse of a 10 billion merger between Organ and Bouygues.
① Like self-awareness, this is also very difficult to achieve, but I think these are the two factors that may be the most important for achieving happiness.
② Throughout the country, the largest quantity of water was used for agricultural purposes.
③ With a population of 176 million, the figures for Brazil indicate how high agricultural water consumption can be in some countries.
① Had it not been for the timely investment from the general public, our company would not be so thriving as it is today. 如果不是得到公众及时的投资，我们公司就不会如此繁荣。
② If I had not studied English, I would never be here to teach you grammar today.
Never/neither/nor/rarely/on no account + is
③强调句：It is people who……；It is sth that ……
④让步句式：however, whatever……；Cogent as this response is, it has some minor errors.
⑤疑问句：用于开头，来个设问，再自问自答，提出观点；can you imagine that……?
How can one imagine ……？
- It should be no surprise that: ……是不足为奇的
It should be no surprise that many countries are focusing on economic development.
- one encouragement is that:其中一个可喜的现象是
one encouragement is that parents are realizing that corporal punishment is not effective in correcting children’s bad habits.
- there is mounting evidence that :有越来越多的证据表明……
There is mounting evidence that women peform no worse than men in workplace.
- The dominant idea is that:目前的主流想法是……
The dominant idea is that a man who cannot prove himself successful in career will have difficulty in finding a life partner.
- adherents to sth argue that:支持者认为……
Adherents to one-child policy argue that parents can give more quality time and attention to their only child.
- opponents of sth say that:反对者认为
Opponents of one-child policy say that children growing up without siblings are inclined to be self-centered.
- one glaring disadvantage of sth is that:其中一个最明显的缺点是
One glaring disadvantage of globalization is that national identity is gradually being lost.
- the advantage of A in contrast to B is that:与B相比，A的优点在于……
The advantage of online learning in contrast to traditional classroom teaching is that it enables students to learn at their own pace.
- there are tremendous advantages to doing:做某事有许多好处
There are tremendous advantages to doing to a bilingual kindergarten.
- sth proves to be counter-productive：某事被证明是有反作用的
Making children work on their homework continuously after school proves to be counter-productive.
- , which is far from true/ the truth: 某某是完全不对的
Some think that the happiest are those who are the wealthiest, which is far from the truth.
- A has contributed to the emergence of B: A导致了B的出现
The development of this mountainous region as a tourist destination has contributed to the emergence of many newly-built hotels.
- A is intimately bound up with B: A与B是紧密相关的
Loss of minority languages is intimately bound up with globalization.
- The havoc that A brings about is well illustrated by B: A带来的破坏完全从B中看出来
The havoc that industrial farming brings about is well illustrated by the pollution of soil and water.
- A positively contributes to B: A对B产生正面的影响
- Engaging services positively contributes to a teenager’s mental and social development.
- A poses a threat to B; A produces adverse effects on B: A对B产生不利影响
Looking at mobile phones while dring poses a threat to both drivers and pedestrains.
- A is an effective means to B: A对B来说是一种有效的手段
Investment in teaching resources in the poor regions is an effective means to reducing illiteracy rate.
- The involvement of A in sth is essential to B: A 参与到某事对B是非常必要的
The involvement of parents in school education is essential to children’s academic performance.
- Consideration can be given to: 我们可以考虑
Consideration can be given to launching anti-smoking campaigns in the public places first.
从时间轴来看，人或物都会发生变化，从而形成今昔对比。我们先想到的表示对比的词有哪些？ But? However? 当然都可以。今天我们用which/who 来表示就可以了。
The audience，which had at first been indifferent, become more and more interested. 观众一开始无动于衷，后来却越来越感兴趣。
句型：sth, which+be+adj., become adj: 曾经……，现在却……
- Shanghai, which used to be a village in history, is now an attractive modern metropolis.
- Mr. Mayun, who had great difficulty in finding a decent job in his early 20s, now enjoys great fame and wealth that nobody could ever expect.
1）Despir over sb/sth has reached such an intensity that:对……如此失望，以至于……
- Despair over Mr. Trump has reached such an intensity among some Republians that the usual rules about there being no swing voters may no longer apply. 一些共和党人对特朗普绝望至极，曾经“绝不会有摇摆不定的投票者”的说法可能会被打破。
- Disappointment over the air quality has reached such intensity among some middle and upper class families that they begin to send their children abroad to study.
- Indignation over forced overwork reached such an intensity among workers that some of them started planning a strike.
that/which……would otherwise→that前后形成对比关系，从句用虚拟，主句中主谓形成因果关系。→相当于if not in this way, in other ways
- E-commerce companies are also helping small business obtain loans that they would otherwise have struggled to raise.
- Donation can directly help children from poor family to go to school, which would otherwise be their dream impossible to come true.
- The easy access to Internet quickly lead us to solutions that we would otherwise spend days working out.
- One allegation against these tests is that standardized tests for college admission only measure a small portion of a student’s entire academic performance.
- Another reason why I am strongly opposed to academic plagiarism is that it is bound to hinder social advancement.
Concern also arises about the tendency that teacher have to “teach to test”
- Many arguments have been made in regard to whether to abolish the standardized tests in the education system.
- Academic plagiarism has been widely reported.
- Given its negative consequences, more resources should be devoted to effectively cracking down on academic plagiarism before it runs wild.
- It is no simple task to detect and eradicate plagiaristic copying which to a large extent results from today’s “publish or perish” environment.
- It is self-evident that no reputation is immune to stealing, in particular when it comes to academic stealing.
- The higher interaction, the higher level of communication and understanding.
Washington，who had begun to believe that all men were created equal after observing the bravery of the black soldier during the Revolution War, overcame the strong opposition of his relatives to grant his slaves their freedom in his will.
- No one can command others who cannot command himself.
- 形式否定，意义肯定：否定词与too组合，否定词与enough 组成构成双否
A man can never have too ties. 一个男人拥有再多领带也不为过。
We can hardly praise his achievement to much. 我们再怎么夸他也不为过。
① more A than B: 是A不是B；与其说是B，不如说是A
② anything but=not:一点都不是，根本不是，绝对不是
I will do anything but that.我决不干那件事。
③ no more……than：两者都不
This book is no more interesting than that one. 这本书和那本书一样特别没趣。
④not more……than: 两者都肯定，前者不如后者
This book is not more interesting than that one.这本书不如那本书有趣。
All is not gold that glitters. 发光的并不都是金子。
⑤否定词：failure to do; fall short of(未达到)；far from
Failure to follow the club rules disqualified him from the volleyball team.
The arts in our universities are far from reality and living creation.