《庄子·秋水 》英译

庄子·秋水 (片段)

Autumn Floods (Excerpt)

Zhuangzi

(一)

惠子相梁,庄子往见之
或谓惠子曰:“庄子来,欲代子相。”
于是,惠子恐,搜于国中,三日三夜。
庄子往见之。曰:“南方有鸟,其名为鹓鶵(yuān chú),子知之乎?夫鹓鶵,发于南海,而飞于北海;非梧桐不止,非练实不食,非醴泉不饮。于是,鸱(chī)得腐鼠,鹓鶵过之;仰而视之,曰:‘吓!’今子欲以子之梁国而‘吓’(hè)我邪?”

Version 1:

When Huizi became the prime minister in the state of Liang, Zhuangzi was going to see him.
Someone said to Huizi, “Zhuangzi is coming. He wishes to replace you as the prime minister.”
Thereupon Huizi grew afraid and sent people to search for Zhuangzi for three days and nights.
Zhuangzi indeed went and saw Huizi. He said, “Do you know a kind of bird in the south, by the name of phoenix? It set out from the South Sea and flew toward the North Sea. It stopped only on the parasol tree, ate only the bamboo fruit and drank only the sweet water from the spring. As it passed by, an owl which had just caught a rotten rat looked up and threatened with a screech. Now, are you trying to threaten me with your state of Liang?”

(Trans. Wang Rongpei)

Version 2:

When Huizi was prime minister of Liang, Zhuangzi set off to visit him.
Someone said to Huizi, “Zhuangzi is coming because he wants to replace you as prime minister!”
With this, Huizi was filled with alarm and searched all over the state for three days and three nights trying to find Zhuangzi.
Zhuangzi then came to see him and said, “In the south there is a bird called the Yuanchu—I wonder if you’ve ever heard of it? The Yuanchu rises up from the South Sea and flies to the North Sea, and it will rest on nothing but the Wutong tree, eat nothing but the fruit of the Lian, and drink only from springs of sweet water. Once there was an owl who had gotten hold of a half-rotten old rat, and as the Yuanchu passed by, it raised its head, looked up at the Yuanchu, and said, ‘Shoo!’ Now that you have this Liang state of yours, are you trying to shoo me?”

(Trans. Burton Watson)

Version 3:

Hueitse was Prime Minister in the Liang State, and Chuangtse was on his way to see him. Someone remarked, "Chuangtse has come. He wants to be minister in your place." Thereupon Hueitse was afraid, and searched all over the country for three days and three nights to find him.
Then Chuangtse went to see him, and said, "In the south there is a bird. It is a kind of phoenix. Do you know it? When it starts from the South Sea to fly to the North Sea, it would not alight except on the wu-t'ung tree. It eats nothing but the fruit of the bamboo, drinks nothing but the purest spring water. An owl which had got the rotten carcass of a rat, looked up as the phoenix flew by, and screeched. Are you not screeching at me over your kingdom of Liang?"

(Trans.  Lin Yutang)

Version 4:

When Huizi become the prime minister in the Liang State, Zhuangzi heard it and was going to congratulate him. Someone slandered Zhuangzi in front of Huizi, "Zhuangzi is coming, and he wants to be minister in your place." Thereupon Huizi grew afraid, and sent people to search for Zhuangzi all over the country for three days and nights.
Then Zhuangzi indeed went and saw him. He innuendoed, "In the south there is a bird named after Yuanchu. It is a kind of phoenix. Do you know it? When it starts from the South Sea to fly to the North Sea, it would not alight except on the parasol tree. It eats nothing but the bamboo fruit, and it drinks nothing but the sweet spring water. Once there was an owl which had got the rotten carcass of a rat, looked up as the Yuanchu flew by, and screeched. Are you not screeching at me over your state of Liang?"

(Trans.  Kris)

(二)

庄子与惠子游于濠梁之上。庄子曰:“鯈(tiáo)鱼出游从容,是鱼之乐也。”
惠子曰:“子非鱼,安知鱼之乐?”
庄子曰:“子非我,安知我不知鱼之乐?”
惠子曰:“我非子,固不知子矣;子,固非鱼也,子之不知鱼之乐,全矣。”
庄子曰:“请循其本。子曰‘汝安知鱼乐’云者,既已知吾知之,而问我;我知之濠上也。”

Version 1:

Traveling with Huizi over a bridge on the Hao River, Zhuangzi said, “The fish is swimming at ease. This is how the fish enjoy themselves.”
Huizi said, “You are not a fish; how do you know the fish are enjoying themselves?”
Zhuangzi said, “You are not me. How do you know I don’t know about the fish?”
Huizi said, “I am not you and I certainly don’t know about you; you are certainly not a fish and you will not know about the fish. That’s for sure.”
Zhuangzi said, “Let’s trace back to your original question. You said, ‘How do you know the fish are enjoying themselves?’ This question shows that you know I know about the fish. Since you know about me, why can’t I know about the fish? I got to know it over a bridge on the Hao River.”

(Trans. Wang Rongpei)

Version 2:

Zhuangzi and Huizi were strolling along the dam of the Hao River when Zhuangzi said, “See how the minnows come out and dart around where they please! That’s what fish really enjoy!”
Huizi said, “You’re not a fish—how do you know what fish enjoy?”
Zhuangzi said, “You’re not I, so how do you know that I don’t know what fish enjoy?”
Huizi said, “I’m not you, so I certainly don’t know what you know. On the other hand, you’re certainly not a fish—so that still proves that you don’t know what fish enjoy!”
Zhuangzi said, “Let’s go back to your original question, please. You asked me how I know what fish enjoy—so you already knew that I knew it when you asked the question. I know it by standing here beside the Hao.”

(Trans. Burton Watson)

Version 3:

Chuangtse and Hueitse had strolled on to the bridge over the Hao, when the former observed, "See how the small fish are darting about! That is the happiness of the fish."
"You not being a fish yourself," said Hueitse, "how can you know the happiness of the fish?"
"And you not being I," retorted Chuangtse, "how can you know that I do not know?"
"If I, not being you, cannot know what you know," urged Hueitse, "it follows that you, not being a fish, cannot know the happiness of the fish."
"Let us go back to your original question," said Chuangtse. "You asked me how I knew the happiness of the fish. Your very question shows that you knew that I knew. I knew it (from my own feelings) on this bridge."

(Trans.  Lin Yutang)

Version 4:

One day, Zhuangzi and Huizi were strolling on to the bridge over the Hao.
Zhangzi points at the river, "See how the small fish are darting about! That is the happiness of the fish."
"You are not a fish," queried Huizi, "how can you know the happiness of the fish?"
"You are not me," retorted Zhuangzi, "how can you know that I do not know?"
"I am not you, and certainly do not know what you know," urged Huizi, "You, are certainly not a fish, and cannot know the happiness of the fish."
"Let us go back to your original question," smiled Zhuangzi. "You asked me how I knew the happiness of the fish. Your question shows that you knew that I knew. I knew it over the bridge on the Hao river."

(Trans.  Kris)


注:文中两处“庄子往见之”的不同之处。这里有时间先后和感情色彩的差异。同理,文中重复最多的字“曰”如何译得生动出彩,就看译者能否把握对话中细致入微的情感了。

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