为什么会有“突破病例”?是否考虑加强针接种?中疾控回应

2021.08.03

近期在国内引发新一波本土疫情的德尔塔毒株传播速度更快,传染性更强,引发了不少人的担忧。新冠疫苗对变异株的有效性如何?为什么打过疫苗还会被感染?

 

在近日的国务院联防联控机制召开新闻发布会上,中国疾控中心研究员、科研攻关组疫苗研发专班专家组成员邵一鸣对此做出回应。

邵一鸣表示,

It is not surprising to see breakthrough infections-people who contract the virus at least 14 days after being fully vaccinated-because no vaccine is capable of totally preventing people from catching the virus.
完成疫苗接种至少14天后又被感染的病例被称为“突破病例”,这并不是例外,因为没有疫苗能够百分之百防止人们感染病毒。

【知识点】

“突破病例”在英文报道中一般用breakthrough infections或者breakthrough cases表示,breakthrough做名词的时候,我们最熟悉的意思是“(某个方面的)突破,重大进展”,比如:breakthrough in core technology(核心技术方面的突破),而在“突破病例”这个语境下,breakthrough其实是动词短语break through的名词形式,表示“the virus breaks through the protective barrier the vaccine provides”,即“病毒突破了疫苗产生的防护屏障”。

至于新冠疫苗对变异毒株的有效性,邵一鸣介绍:

"All COVID-19 vaccines around the world are evaluated based on their efficacy in preventing clinical disease, as well as their role in reducing serious cases and deaths," he said, adding that against these barometers, no marked difference has been found in domestic vaccines' effects on key mutations.
全球各条技术路线的疫苗有效性评估都是基于其在防止入院及减少重症和死亡病例方面的效果,在这个评判标准下,国内疫苗对几个主要变异毒株的有效性并没有显著变化。

He added that an irrefutable benefit of vaccination lies in that it can always trigger robust "basic immunity" and protective memory cells in human bodies.
疫苗接种一个不可否认的益处在于,疫苗可以触发强有力的“基础免疫”并唤起人体内的保护记忆细胞。

If immunity against the virus wanes in the long run, these memory cells can be "reawakened effectively" by delivering a booster shot and this will "produce very good protective effects", Shao said.
如果在比较长的时间后,身体对病毒的免疫能力逐渐下降,可以通过注射加强针重新唤起体内的这些记忆细胞,并产生非常好的保护效果。

 

暂无全人群加强针接种必要

国际上有部分国家明确为民众提供新冠疫苗加强针的接种,我国是否有考虑?对此,邵一鸣回应称:

"For the general population who have been vaccinated within a year, there is no need to obtain a booster shot for now," he said.
对已完成免疫接种一年以内的普通人群,暂无必要进行加强针接种。

【词汇讲解】

所谓疫苗加强针(booster shot/booster dose),是指在常规使用疫苗剂型、剂量注射后,额外增加的疫苗接种。这里的核心词booster,来源于动词boost,主要表示“加强、促进、推动”等意思,比如boost production(促生产),boost morale(提振士气)等,在这里表示“increase or renew the effect of the vaccine”,即“增强疫苗产生的效果”。

Whether or not people with weak immune systems, such as the elderly and those suffering chronic illnesses, as well as workers at higher risk of contracting the virus or people planning to travel to high-risk areas need a booster dose six to 12 months after initial immunization, and when a booster shot should be rolled out are being researched.
对完成免疫超过6—12个月且免疫功能较弱的老年人和有基础性疾病的患者,以及因工作需要去往高风险地区工作的人员等人群,是否有必要开展加强针,以及什么时间开展加强针的接种,正在进行研究。

 

疫苗接种必须和严格的防控措施并用

邵一鸣表示,

Many countries, despite their high vaccination coverage rates, are grappling with a resurgence of outbreaks due to a rush to relax anti-virus policies, such as wearing masks and maintaining social distancing.
虽然很多国家疫苗接种率已经很高了,但是在放宽戴口罩和保持社交距离等疫情控制措施之后,仍然出现了大幅度的疫情反弹。

"This shows that inoculation must be used in conjunction with strict disease control measures," he said, calling on the public to continue practicing personal protective protocols.
这说明,疫苗接种必须和严格的防控措施并用,请大家继续维持个人的防护措施。

 

【相关词汇】

免疫屏障
immunity barrier

有效性和安全性研究
safety and efficacy research

常态化疫情防控
regular epidemic prevention and control

输入病例
imported COVID-19 cases

本土病例
locally transmitted cases

无症状感染者
asymptomatic cases

传染病检疫及监测
quarantining and monitoring of infectious diseases

流行病学调查
epidemiological investigation

集中观察
concentrated observation

外防输入、内防反弹
to prevent the coronavirus from re-entering the country to cause a new epidemic

早发现、早报告、早隔离、早治疗“四早”措施
the principle of early detection, reporting, quarantine and treatment

参考来源:北京日报、中国日报

(中国日报网英语点津 Helen)


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