Anyang is one of 3,000 years of history and cultural cities, is the major birthplaces of Chinese civilization, is one of China's seven ancient capitals, and more, "the first ancient capital of China," said. Anyang heritage, the city's heritage preservation of existing state-level units two, 36 provincial heritage conservation units, county-level cultural relics in the more than 200 units. Here are the flood control Ximen Bao Ye City, with the first one Xiaoyong Shanzhan good tomb of the female and two women Mausoleum (legends of the Ku Zhuanxu and Dili's tomb), there are key national heritage conservation units, the ancient capital of China's earliest -- Yin Ruins.
Anyang, located near the Huanshui River, is really worthy of its reputation for being an imperial capital 3,000 years ago.
Anyang is one of the eight ancient capitals of China; a national famous historical & cultural city; as well as an excellent tourist city of China. Anyang is the cradle of Chouyi, which ranks top of the five classic works of China; the hometown of oracle-bone inscriptions---the earliest writing of China; the place where uncovered Simuwu square cauldron---one of the masterpieces of the National Museum of China; Anyang has Yinxu---a world cultural heritage; Red Flag Canal---the man-made Milky Way, which is appraised as “the 8th Miracle in the World”; National Museum of Chinese Writing, the only writing-themed national museum in the world; Cao Cao Mausoleum,
Ⅰ Time-Honoured History
- Mausoleums of Emperors Zhuan Xu and Di Ku
The two emperors of Zhuan Xu and Di Ku, who were among the “Three Emperors and Five Sovereigns” in prehistorical times, both set their capitals in Anyang about 4,000 years ago. They each reigned for more than 70 years, and were worshipped by the ancient Chinese people. Their mausoleums are now located in Nei Huang County, Anyang City. Zhuan Xu instituted 9 states of Yan, Ji, Qing, Xu, Yu, Jing, Yang, Yong, Liang, and defined each district. That was the first time of all for China having its own territory and administrative districts. Moreover, Zhuan Xu and Di Ku strengthened sovereignty, held theocracy and built the separate official systems of people and gods. They defeated Gong Gong, expanded the territory, addressed the flood issue and brought benefit to the people. They created the Calendar of Zhuan Xu to guide agricultural affairs, thus promoted national prosperity and social developmet, laying a foundation for new progress in the period of Yao and Shun.
2、Yinxu--- Imperial Capital
Yinxu is located in the northwest of Anyang---a famous historical & cultural city of China, lays astride the north and south banks of Huan River. It was called “North Meng” anciently, as well as “Grand Yishang” and “Yishang” in oracle-bone inscriptions. Yinxu was the capital city in late Shang Dynasty, which was 3,300 years ago. It was the first relic of ancient capital in China that was recorded in documents and has been proved by oracle-bone inscriptions and archaeological excavation.
Since the discovery of the Oracle Bone Inscriptions in 1899 and the scientific excavation of Yinxu in 1928, Yinxu, with the Oracle Bone Inscriptions, Bronzes, and large-scale capital sites, has been an icon, demonstrating the height of flourishing civilization in ancient China. And Yinxu thereafter began to enjoy the repuation of the first ancient capital in Chinese history, as proved by writing records.
- Zhangye Historical Site
In ancient times, Zhanghe River was named Zhangshui River. According to the Oracle Bone Inscriptions unearthed in Yinxu, there were many large-scale rituals held by Shang Kings, which showed that Zhangshui River, as Huanshui River and Shangshui River, were the mother river of Shang Dynasty. The "mother" of Zhangshui River left us many historical relics and cultural remains.
In Yuyang Village, the oldest village in China as dubbed by some people, 6,000 years of the Anyang’s history was concentrated in this small place. The development and evolution of cultures in different historical periods can find their evidences here.
The ancient capital of Ye City was built by Cao Cao. With its strucure of closed axial symmetry and distinctive districts, it is a turning point and milestone in our construction of capital cities. Meanwhile, with support and leading of Cao Cao, the Jian'an Literature formed a bright, fresh, simple and forceful style and left many brilliant poets and writings.
- Yue Fei Temple of Absolute Devotion
Yue Fei(1103 AD-1142 AD), styled Pengju, was born in Tangyin (current Tangyin County, Anyang City, Henan Province). He is a national hero, military strategist, and a famous general resisting the invasion of the Jin. Yue Fei had a poor yet learning-oriented family and a mother of outstanding filial piety. His mother stabbed four words " loyalty to your country " on his back, that was the criterion throughout Yue Fei’s life.
In 1129 AD, Jin Wushu crossed the Yangtse River to the South, and then captured Jiankang city. Yue Fei insisted on resistance, and recovered Jiankang city the following year. He broken "Guai Zi Soldiers" of the Jin troops in Yan city, and recovered Zhengzhou, Luoyang etc. Insurgents in the Two Rivers Region (Huaihe River and the Yellow River) echoed Yue Fei's action and prepared to attack Zhu Xianzhen．But Qin Hui，the Prime of the Southern Song Dyansty was advocating reconciliation, and sent twelve golden medals in one day to recall Yue Fei’s army. Yue Fei then was framed by Qin Hui with a pretexted charge and died in prison.
To commemorate the this national hero with "loyalty to your country", the later people built a magnificent Yue Fei Temple in his hometown, seeing a continuous stream of pilgrims year after year.
Ⅱ Rich Culture
- The Culture of Yin Shang
Since Pangeng----the King of Shang Dynasty----moved his capital to Yin, which is called Xiaotun in Anyang now, Shang dynasty lasted for eight dynasties with 12 kings in total. In its control of 550 years long, Yin became the center of politics 、economy and culture. Anyang is one of the cradles of Chinese culture.
The culture of Yin Shang is a splendid civilization with city、characters and bronze ware. The massive and neat building of palace and ancestral temple were outsanding in the world in that times; the exquisite bronze ware is famous in china and foreign countries with a variety of applications; the well-developed handcraft of bronze, jadeware bone and pottery is world-renowned; the oracle-bone inscriptions, with rich content and well-developed methods of coinage,enjoy a unique significance in the word civilization.
- The I-Ching Culure
The Book of Changes was written by the King Wen of the Western Zhou . The King Wen of the Western Zhou was imprisoned by the King Zhou of the Shang Dynasty in Youli where was in Tangyin of Henan Anyang now. Accroding to classics, King Wen “wrote Chouyi during his imprisonment”. People at that time used it to predict the future.
The Book of Changes research the heaven, land and people, with people as its root. The Book of Changes promote “constantly striving to become stronger and regarding people and matters with generous virtue”, “Unity of Man and Nature” and “Sageliness within and Kingliness without”……The Book of Changes lays the foundation of Chinese traditonal culture, and is the root of Chinese culture.
- The Culture of Nouthern Dynasty
In the Wei-jin Northern and southern Dynasties，there were lots of temples and grottoes being built, and the Buddhist culture became one of the main pillars of Chinese traditional culture. The Xiaonanhai Grotto of Northern Qi Dynasty, the Lingquan Temple, the Xiuding Temple Pagoda and the Wanfo Valley, were all built in that time. All of the buildings reflect the prosperous of Buddhist culture, promote the development of the grotto art and painting and calligraphy art, and provide the material objects for the research of development of Buddhist culture and stone carving calligraphy art.