《道德经·第八十一章》英译

《道德经》第八十一章

信言不美,美言不信;
善者不辩,辩者不善;
知者不博,博者不知。
圣人不积,既以为人己愈有,既以与人己愈多。
天之道,利而不害;人之道,为而不争。

 

白话版本一(任继愈)

真话不漂亮,
漂亮的不是真话。
善人不巧说,
巧说的不是善人。
真懂得不卖弄,
卖弄的不是真懂。
“圣人”没有什么保留,
尽全力帮助人,他自己反更充足,
把一切给与人,他自己反更丰富。
天的“道”,利万物而不害。
“圣人”的“道”,
做什么从不跟人家竞争。

 

白话版本二(陈鼓应)

真实的言词不华美,华美的言词不真实。
行为良善的人不巧辩,巧辩的人不良善。
真正了解的人不广博,广博的人不能深入了解。
有道的圣人不私自积藏,他尽量帮助别人,自己反而更充足;他尽量给与别人,自己反而更丰富。
自然的规律,利物而无害;人间的行事,施为而不争夺。

 

版本一(Victor H. Mair 译)

Sincere words are not beautiful,

Beautiful words are not sincere.

He who knows is not learned,

He who is learned does not know.

He who is good does not have much,

He who has much is not good.

The sage does not hoard.

The more he does for others,

the more he has himself;

The more he gives to others,

the more his own bounty increases.

Therefore,

The Way of heaven benefits but does not harm,

The Way of man acts but does not contend.

 

版本二(Stan Rosenthal 译)

The truth is not always beautiful,

nor beautiful words the truth.

Those who have virtue,

have no need of argument for its own sake,

for they know that argument is of no avail.

Those who have knowledge of the natural way

do not train themselves in cunning,

whilst those who use cunning to rule their lives,

and the lives of others,

are not knowledgeable of the Tao,

nor of natural happiness.

The sage seeks not to have a store

of things or knowledge, for he knows,

the less of these he has, the more he has,

and that the more he gives,

the greater his abundance.

The way of the sage is pointed

but does not harm.

The way of the sage

is to work without cunning.

 

版本三(Arthur Waley 译)

True words are not fine-sounding;

Fine-sounding words are not true.

The good man does not prove by argument;

The he who proves by argument is not good.

True wisdom is different from much learning;

Much learning means little wisdom.

The Sage has no need to hoard;

When his own last scrap has been used up on behalf of others,

Lo, he has more than before!

When his own last scrap has been used up in giving to other,

Lo, his stock is even greater than before!

For heaven’s way is to sharpen without cutting,

And the Sage’s way is to act without striving.

 

版本四(Ron Hogan 译)

The truth isn’t flashy.

Flashy words aren’t true.

Educated people aren’t always smart.

Smart people don’t always have an education.

Good people don’t argue.

People who argue aren’t good.

The Masters don’t hang on to things.

They’re always doing something for other people,

so they always have more to give.

They give away whatever they have,

so what they have is worth more.

If you want to get right with Tao,

help other people, don’t hurt them.

The Masters always work with people,

never against them.

版本五(Roger T., Ames & David L.,Hall)

Credible words are not eloquent;

Eloquent words are not credible.

The wise are not erudite;

The erudite are not wise.

The adept are not all-around;

The all-around are not adept.

版本六(许渊冲)

Truthful words may not be beautiful;

beautiful words may not be truthful.

A good man need not justify himself;

who justifies himself may not be a good man.

A wise man may not be learned;

a learned man may not be wise.

A sage does not keep things for himself.

The more he helps others, the more he still has.

The more he gives, the more he keeps.

The divine law

will do all good and no harm.

The way of a sage

is to do what he can but contend with none.

我的解读:

《道德经》文笔朴实,理论清晰。其文本是固定的,与述而不作的《论语》不同,《道德经》是老子亲自著作,采用格言体,排列如短诗,理论上很明晰,在逻辑上有一定的推理性,有些地方押韵,阅读上朗朗上口,富有趣味。有些地方含有隐喻和象征。在语言表达上非常清晰。语言简练但非常深奥,微言大义。因此,古今中外读者对此爱不释手,如一杯香茗,越品越有味,对人生的意义体会也越深刻。

由于解读《道德经》版本很多,其中,任继愈《老子新译》和陈鼓应《老子今注今译》的中文解读最为经典。但是,老子的辩证法是朴素的辩证法,科学性还不够,比如。最后一章开头提出了美与信、善于辩。知与博诸范畴,实际上是提出了真假、善恶、美丑等矛盾对立的一系列问题,说明某些事物的表现和内在实质往往不一致。但是,他把事物的矛盾,表面和内容不一致看成是绝对的,从而陷于武断。比如,信言可能是美的,美言也可能是信的。将两者对立起来就片面了。但是,作为译者,我们又要保持这种朴素的观点,不能自作主张。显然,Stan Rosenthal,汪榕培和许渊冲就将这种绝对翻译成相对,从而使句子更符合现代人的思维逻辑。但是若从原文实意,保持那种朴素更恰当。其次,前面三句采用回文和骈句的修辞形式。这种语言形式也是其内容,若能保存下来更好。从各个版本看,想保持这种结构(包括字数上),基本上都无法百分百保持。其次,在理解上“知者不博,博者不知”上,白话文存在语义上的差别。我们都知道,一千个读者就有一千个哈姆雷特,《道德经》语言极其精炼,但寓意深刻。“横看成岭侧成峰”,正是《道德经》的精妙,才引古今中外读者进行不断地解读。在翻译这段文字时,我们不能将它译得过死,即译文只从一个角度解读,这样将导致它的价值大大流失,从长远看,译文不能长久流传,为人称颂,只有文本承载的内涵多,价值才高。

从以上白话文和英文译本看,我们发现,短短的几行文字,每个人的解读各有不同,都有道理。很多词语定义上有所区别,比如“信言”有认为是真理,有认为是真话;翻译成“the truth”则用单数,来表示特殊性,有些像“道”,从本体论角度思考。对“知者不博,博者不知”的理解也是存在差异,但是到底是专与博相对立,还是知识渊博的人谦虚,这个似乎都有道理。“愈有”和“愈多”的理解也是存在差异,如何处理好这似乎带有双关的语言,扩充其语义是非常重要的。

因此,译文的单复数,大小写,用词,以及结构的呈现,都是其翻译的内容。因此,我试图从这几个方面想呈现其博大深远的内容。

 

My Translation

Sincere words are not sweet; sweet words are not sincere.

Good men are not eloquent; the eloquent are not good.

Mr. Know-all is not omniscient; the omniscient are not ostentatious.

The sage does not hoard.

The more he does for others, the more he learns;

the more he gives to others, the more he receives.

The Tao of heaven benefits everything without conflicts;

The Tao of the sage benefits others without contention.

本文由 语料库 作者:Tmxchina 发表,其版权均为 语料库 所有,文章内容系作者个人观点,不代表 语料库 对观点赞同或支持。如需转载,请注明文章来源。
3

发表评论