《林黛玉进贾府》节选英译

一、原文

进入堂屋中,抬头迎面先看见一个赤金九龙青地大匾,匾上写着斗大的三个大字,是“荣禧堂”,后有一行小字:“某年月日,书赐荣国公贾源”,又有“万几宸(chén)翰之宝”。大紫檀雕螭案上,设着三尺来高青绿古铜鼎,悬着待漏随朝墨龙大画,一边是金蜼(wěi)彝(36),一边是玻璃(hǎi)。地下两溜十六张楠木交椅,又有一副对联,乃乌木联牌,镶着錾(zàn)银的字迹,道是:

座上珠玑昭日月,堂前黼黻(fǔfú)焕烟霞。

下面一行小字,道是:“同乡/世教弟/勋袭/东安郡王/穆莳/拜手/书。”

 

二、霍克斯译

High overhead on the wall facing her as she entered the hall was a great blue board framed in glided dragons, on which was written in large gold characters

THE HALL OF EXALTED FELICITY

With a column of smaller characters at the side giving a date and the words ‘written for our beloved subject, Jiayuan, Duke of Rong-guo’, followed by the Emperor’s private seal, a device containing the words ‘kingly cares’ and ‘royal brush’ in archaic seal-script.

A long high table of carved red sandal wood, ornamented with dragons, stood against the wall underneath. In the center of this was a huge antique bronze ding, fully a yard high, covered with a green patina. On the wall above the ding hung a long vertical scroll with an ink-painting of a dragon emerging from clouds and waves, of the kind often presented to high court officials in token of their office. The ding was flanked on the side by a smaller antique bronze vessel with a pattern of gold inlay and on the other by a crystal bowl. At each side of the table stood a row of eight yellow cedar-wood armchairs with their backs to the wall; and above the chairs hung, one on each side, a pair of vertical ebony boards inlaid with a couplet in characters of gold:

(on the right-hand one)

May the jewel of learning shine in this house more effulgently than the sun and moon.

(on the left-hand one)

May the insignia of honour glitter in these halls more brilliantly than the starry sky.

This was followed by a colophon in smaller characters:

With the Respectful Compliments of your Fellow-Student, Mushi, Hereditary Prince of Dong-an.

 

三、杨宪益夫妇译

Once inside the wall she looked up and her eyes was caught by a great blue tablet with nine gold dragons on it, on which was written in characters large as peck measures;

HALL OF GLORIOUS FELICITY

Smaller characters at the end recorded the date on which the Emperor had conferred this tablet upon Jia Yuan, the Duke of Rongguo, and it bore the Inperial seal.

On the large red sandalwood table carved with dragons an old bronze tripod, green with patina, stood about three feet high. On the wall hung a large scroll-picture of black dragons riding the waves. This was flanked by a bronze wine vessel inlaid with gold and a crystal bowl. By the walls were a row of sixteen cedar-wood armchairs; and above these hung two panels of ebony with the following couplet inset in silver:

Pearls on the dais outshine the sun and moon;

Insignia of honour in the hall blaze like iridescent clouds.

Small characters below recorded that this had been written by the Prince of Dungan, who signed his name Mu Shi and styled himself a fellow provincial and old family friend.

 

四、评析

此篇选自《林黛玉进贾府》,此处是黛玉去拜见二舅舅途中所见,宏伟豪华的府邸展现了身份地位。因此,透过林黛玉的眼睛,看到宏伟的外观,讲究的布局,华贵的陈设,等级森严的人际关系,给我们展示了贾府这一地位显赫的封建家族的典型环境。其中,我们知道贾政的日常起居处非常简单,而贾赦进门就看到很多艳妆的姬妾,摆设非常奢华。通过林黛玉的眼睛,侧面可以看出两位舅舅的性格。所以此处节选,一方面可以看出贾赦与皇帝之间的关系,体现级别很高的身份,另一方面,也体现贾赦的荒淫奢侈。因此,“四个再现”依旧是《红楼梦》英译的难点,即再现原文作品的环境,再现人物形象,再现原文句式,再现文化意象。

首先,我们看第一句“进入堂屋中,抬头迎面先看见一个赤金九龙青地大匾,匾上写着斗大的三个大字,是‘荣禧堂’”。“大匾”的“大”都用了“great”修饰,但是“匾”,霍用“board”稍欠档次。“斗大”一词翻译,霍用了比较抽象的词“large”,杨用了相对比较具体形象的词“large as peck measures”。而匾名两位译者都采用了超文本补充翻译,大写所有字母,达到醒目,增强气派的效果。“书赐”的翻译,霍译用了一个普通用词“giving”,而杨译则用了一个比较正式的词语“had conferred”。“万几宸(chén)翰之宝”翻译上,霍与杨两位译者都想体现贾赦与皇帝的关系,分别用了“the Emperor’s private seal”和“the Inperial seal”。但是,此处霍译的“private”更能体现出豪宅主人与皇帝的亲密关系,并将玉玺上“万几宸(chén)翰”的意思翻译出来了,而杨译则省译了该内容。但是,我认为,“万几宸(chén)翰”则是玉玺的借代,所以为了让读者注意点更集中,可以直接省去那文化意义,译为“the Emperor’s private seal”即可。

接下来是描写贾赦豪宅奢华的摆设。穆莳手书的这幅对联“乃乌木联牌”,“字迹”“镶着鏨银”,规格之高、价值之重足以赫然。对联落款的这个称谓顺序也是有讲究的。先称同乡,把地理关系拉近;次称“世教弟”,把交情的关系讲深;再称“勋袭东安郡王”这个显赫的爵衔,表明这位同乡老弟的显贵,虽然爵位是世袭的,但之所以能世袭,还是因为有世袭的条件、资格,且所袭之位如此高贵,也说明这个继承者的家世显耀。所以贾府对这幅对联十分看重,挂在最显眼的正厅大堂中央、印有“万机宸翰之宝”图章的“赤金九龙青地大匾”的下方。这样的一朝显贵尚且如此尊崇贾府,也就从另一个角度看出,贾府是怎样的显耀。两位译者为此都使用运用修饰词加上奢华用料来体现其与众不同的身份,此外,霍译还将一些像画等摆设背后的文化意象增译出来,并将“鼎”等中国特色文化词采取音译的翻译方法。

再接下来两句对联“座上珠玑昭日月,堂前黼黻焕烟霞”画龙点睛,将贾赦的奢华生活体现的淋漓尽致。霍译使用了比较对称的句型,并增补一些文化信息。如上下联的为主摆放,这样的增译更有益于读者有一个空间画面感。但是,在内容上,杨译采用直译,霍译在“烟霞”的翻译上,则换成了“starry sky”。可能更符合外国读者理解。

题款是“同乡世教弟勋袭东安郡王穆莳拜手书”,这个题款的意思是这样的:同乡世代承受府上教诲的兄弟、因功勋世袭东安郡王穆莳,恭敬的亲自书写。东安郡王穆莳在这句话里表示自己与荣国府是世交,并且很恭敬的为荣国府题写对联。当然,东安郡王是客套的书面语,但也表明荣国府是上通天子、交接王侯的公族巨胄。

霍译:With the Respectful Compliments of your Fellow-Student, Mushi, Hereditary Prince of Dong-an.

杨译:the Prince of Dungan, who signed his name Mu Shi and styled himself a fellow provincial and old family friend.

霍译的表述与原文结构更加一致,而杨译则采用描述的手法去介绍身份,可能从理解上更容易让读者了解人物关系,但是却因为信息陈述的先后导致侧重点发生了变化。

 

My Translation

Entering the hall, a great blue tablet overhead framed in gilded nine dragons burst into her eyes, on which was written in five eye-catching gold words:

THE HALL OF EXALTED FELICITY

With a column of smaller words bottom right recording the date and the words ‘conferred the tablet on Jia Yuan, Duke of Rong-guo’, followed by the Emperor’s private seal. Under the tablet, a giant red sandalwood table ornamented with dragons placed there. On the table, there is a three feet high green antique bronze tripod. On the wall above the tripod, there is a large ink-painting of dragons riding the waves. The tripod was flanked by an antique bronze vessel inlaid with gold and a crystal basin. Meanwhile, each side of the table equipped with a row of eight cedar-wood armchairs; and above the chairs hung two vertical ebony boards with the following couplet embossed with gold words:

(on the right-hand one)

May the descendants outstanding beyond the shining sun.

(on the left-hand one)

May the entire family thriving more than the starry sky.

This was followed by several small words:

With the Respectful Compliments of your Fellow-Student, Mushi, Hereditary Prince of Dong-an.

 


注:红楼梦译本主要有三,霍克斯译本、杨宪益夫妇译本、乔利译本。 感兴趣者邮箱联系获取。

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