《西厢记·络丝娘》英译

原文:

(夫人云)这小贱人,倒也说得是,我不合养了这个不肖之女 ,经官呵,其实辱没家门!罢,罢!俺家无犯法之男、再婚之女,便与了这禽兽罢!红娘,先与我唤那贱人过来。

版本一(许渊冲)

Madame Cui says. What the little wretch has said is reasonable. It is my misfortune to have brought up this unworthy daughter. If the case were brought to the court, it would bring disgrace to our family. Well, well! Our family had no guilty man nor remarried woman. What can I do now but give my daughter to the beast! Rose, go and tell Yingying to come here!

版本二(熊式一)

MADAM says:

After all, what the little wretch has said is quite reasonable. It is my misfortune that I am the mother of such an unworthy girl. If the case is brought before the authorities it will certainly overwhelm our family with disgrace. Well! Well! My family has never had any male guilty of any offence against the law or any female who has married a second time. So I must give my daughter to this beast. Hung Niang, first go and tell that bad girl to come here.

版本三(奚若谷)

(Old lady speaks:) What this little hussy had said is right. I ought not to have raised such a good-for-nothing daughter! If I were to take it to court, I would defile our family reputation. Enough! Our family counts among it no man who has transgressed the law, no woman who has married twice. I'll have to give her to this scoundrel. Crimson, call that hussy here!

评析:此段选自《西厢记》第四本【络丝娘】。原文写出了老夫人对无可奈何,无从选择的心情。语言较口语化。所以,翻译时,要注意不能过于书面化,同时,翻译也要将老夫人心理活动和神态表现出来。从而,使译文能够生动形象地表演给观众看。

为此,我找了三个译本,译者分别是许渊冲,熊式一和奚若谷。三个译本各有千秋,选词和句型也有不少相似处。为便于区别,我挑出他们的差异点,分析其优势和不足。为展现老夫人个性化的语言特点,三位译者都各显神通。选词上,如“小贱人”、“不肖女”、“禽兽”等译法略有不同。此处的一些脏话其实表现老夫人无可奈何,用打骂来解气。许和熊都将译为“wretch”,弱化那种纯粹的“脏话”意思;而奚若谷翻译成“hussy”, 就是纯粹地气急后脏话连篇了。我认为,根据老夫人身份,其作为受过礼教的女子,这种泼妇骂街式的词语一般不会出自她之口,这里的骂只是出气。而对张生的称呼“禽兽”,那是她真的不愿女儿嫁给他。所以语气会重一点。其次,对人物名称的译法。如“红娘”,许渊冲将此译为“Rose”,有些像泰坦尼克中那种西方式人物名字。熊式一采取音译,奚若谷则译为了“Crimson”。在句式上, 我认为熊式一没有亦步亦趋,他增加了一些小词,来表现老夫人的心理活动,使老夫人人物形象立体化。如“After all”、“overwhelm”。奚若谷译文优势在于多次使用虚拟语气,表现崔老夫人的无可奈何之情。同时,在叙述视角上,我认为应该以老夫人第一人称,因为此处也是表现老夫人固守封建礼教的腐朽思想。在她看来,自己治家无方,有种自责感。所以,许渊冲和熊式一译文认为崔莺莺不守礼法,辱没家门。而奚若谷则表现老夫人的自责,认为教子无方,辱没家门。

My Translation

Madam says: Alas, what the little wretch has said is quite reasonable. I should’ t have raised such a black sheep. If I were to take her to court, I would disgrace our family reputation. Well, well! Neither guilty man nor remarried woman is in our family. Alas, I can do nothing but to let my unworthy daughter to the villain. Rose, go and tell my wicked girl to come here!

 

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