- Since the industrial revolution, our life has been greatly improved by technology.
→ Since the industrial revolution, our life has been greatly improved by technology, from the invention of the automobile to the discovery of new energy to the development of the Internet.
- he spends most of his spare time doing volunteer work.
→ Unlike most of his peers who play a lot of computer games in their free time, he devotes most of his spare time to doing volunteer.
Today we are surrounded by all kinds of advertising from billboards by the side of expressways to traditional TV commercials to pop-up ads when we sulf the Internet.
②在名词后加such as或like 结构，功能同上，都是对名词的举例和细化。
Students need to be encouraged to participate in a variety of extracurriculum activities, such as team sports, community service, and a visit to a museum.
③加上参照物对比，可用rather than, unlike, not……but等
Rather than seeking a job in the big city where he graduated, he returned to the village where he grew up, hoping to make contributions to his hometown.
They show less respect for their teachers in the way their parents did.
He quit his college education not out of economic reason, but for more time to invest in his business idea.
Overseas education becomes a top concern for parents seeking to secure a better future for their children in this rapidly-changing society.
He talked to the public enthusiastically and with confidence.
Governments can raise students’environmental awareness by holding regular lectures and encouraging them to plant more trees.
⑦对名词进行“典型性说明”，可用in particular, typically, especially等。
Women，particularly housewives who spend more time buying daily necessities, are more susceptible to price change.
Many celebrities like movie stars live extravagant lifestyles with luxury cars and big houses in a peaceful environment.
Movies with violent content have a negative effect on teenagers, who are mentally immature and have not formed correct life values.
⑨加强横向思维，多些解释、并列或者罗列，可用namely, that is, in other word, or等，不过，在使用解释时要避免重复，最好体现层级感。
We are inclined to recruit people who are prudent, or good at balancing risks against gains when facing a choice.
⑩对现象和观点进行范围上的限定，因为很多现象和观点不是放之四海而皆准，而是有前提或者限定条件的。可用上for, in terms of, when等。
Our society is changing rapidly in term of technology and city skyline.
Working at home is highly efficient for people with a good time management ability.