《诗经-国风·周南·桃夭》英译

《诗经--国风·周南·桃夭》

桃之夭夭,灼灼其华。
之子于归,宜其室家。

桃之夭夭,有蕡其实。
之子于归,宜其家室。

桃之夭夭,其叶蓁蓁。
之子于归,宜其家人。

 

版本一(杨宪益)

The peach tree is slender and sturdy,
Flaming red are its blossoms.
The girl is getting married,
Most suitable for the house.

The peach tree is slender and sturdy,
Luscious and abundant is its fruit.
The girl is getting married,
Most suitable for the home.

The peach tree is slender and sturdy,
Exuberant and green are its leaves.
The girl is getting married,
Most suitable for the family.

版本二(魏蝔蚀)

Flourishing Peach Trees
The peach trees flourish
With blossoms splendid and glorious.
The maiden is getting married,
May she make the family joyous.

The peach trees flourish
With peaches big and heavy.
The maiden is getting married,
May she make the family happy.

The peach trees flourish
With leaves exuberant and vigorous.
The maiden is getting married,
May she make the family harmonious.

版本三(James Legge)

The peach tree is young and elegant ;

Brilliant are its flowers .

This young lady is going to her future home ,

And will order well her chamber and house .

The peach tree is young and elegant ;

Abundant will be its fruits .

This young lady is going to her future home ,

 And will order well her chamber and house .

The peach tree is young and elegant ;

 Luxuriant are its leaves .

This young lady is going to her future home ,

And will order well her family .

James Legge的译诗没有采取押韵属于无韵诗(Blank Verse),像一首散文诗,他选择保持原文的结构形式,使用平行结构,重复和元音,使得译文读来朗朗上口,如歌曲一般回环往复,具有画面感。

版本四(William Jennings, 1891)

 Ho, graceful little peach-tree,

Brightly thy blossoms bloom!

Go, maiden, to thy husband;

Adorn his hall, his room.

 Ho, graceful little peach-tree,

Thy fruit abundant fall!

Go, maiden, to thy husband;

Adorn his room, his hall.

Ho, graceful little peach-tree,

With foliage far and wide!

Go, maiden, to thy husband;

His household well to guide.

William Jennings的译本出版于1891年,全诗都是三音步抑格(Ho, graceful little peach-tree),而且在二、四行押韵(“bloom”和“room”,“fall”和“hall”,“wide”和“guide”),具有英语传统诗歌的韵味,且有点古色古香的味道。

 

版本五(许渊冲)

The Newly-Wed

The peach tree beams so red;

How brilliant are its flowers!

The maiden’s getting wed,

Good for the nuptial bowers.

The peach tree beams so red;

How plentiful its fruit!

The maiden’s getting wed;

She’s the family’s root.

The peach tree beams so red;

Its leaves are lush and green.

The maiden’s getting wed;

On household she’ll be keen.

许渊冲的译诗的标题直接凸显主题,全诗采用全韵(full rhyme),a, b, a, b结构隔行押尾韵。将桃花之色red 与新娘即将结婚wed联系,从声音上让人产生联想,桃树果实fruit与她成为夫家核心root联系起来,让人体会到她结婚时的幸福。

版本六(Arthur Waley,1937)

Buxom is the peach-tree;

How its flowers blaze!

Our lady going home

Brings good to family and house.

Buxom is the peach-tree;

How its fruits swells!

Our lady going home

Brings good to family and house.

Buxom is the peach-tree;

How thick its leaves!

Our lady going home

Brings good to the people of her house.

Arthur Waley的译文以抑扬格为基础,并不十分严格,每个诗行的音步也不尽一致,也没有使用韵脚,但读来比James Legge的译文更有诗歌的节奏。

 

版本七(Burton Watson)

Peach tree young and fresh,

bright bright its blossoms:

this girl’s getting married,

she’ll do well in her home.

Peach tree young and fresh,

plump are its fruits:

this girl’s getting married,

she’ll do well in her rooms.

Peach tree young and fresh,

its leaves lush and full:

this girl’s getting married,

she’ll do right by her people.

Burton Watson的一个译文则带上了一点现代诗的色彩,除了每个诗节的第一行以外,各行的第一个字母都是小写。

版本八(汪榕培)

The peach tree stands wayside,

With blossoms glowing pink.

I wish the pretty bride

Affluence in food and drink.

The peach tree stands wayside,

With fruits all hanging rife.

I wish the pretty bride

Abundant wealth in life.

The peach tree stands wayside,

With leaves so thick and dense.

I wish the pretty bride

A pleasant home e’er hence.

 

白话文版

茂盛桃树嫩枝丫,开着鲜艳粉红花。

这位姑娘要出嫁,和和美美到夫家。

茂盛桃树嫩枝丫,玉桃压弯绿枝丫。

这位姑娘要出嫁,洞房花烛美人花。

茂盛桃树嫩枝丫,绿叶浓密有光华。

这位姑娘要出嫁,幸福美满待全家。

我觉得,诗中的桃与即将出嫁的新娘有隐喻关系。第一诗节是女子出嫁,其面如桃花,表现女子结婚时害羞又幸福。第二诗节用了夸张,时间上的推进,由春天桃花浪漫到夏天的硕果累累,玉桃满枝暗示子孙满堂,因此我们可以看到,第一诗节由“宜其室家”变成第二诗节的“宜其家室”,地点发生了转移。第三诗节则总结新娘过着美满幸福的生活。我还是采取以元音来押尾韵,使得小诗读来朗朗上口。

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