As Palestinians and Israelis hunkered down for the second week of an intense conflict, a series of deadly flash points have galvanized both sides in a region where the human cost of war is all too familiar.

这个地区的人们对战争造成的伤亡再熟悉不过了,而一系列致命的爆发点刺激着巴勒斯坦人和以色列人,这是双方民众躲避激烈冲突的第二周。

Before dawn on Monday, Israeli warplanes bombarded Gaza City, compounding the civilian suffering in the coastal enclave. At the same time, the rocket barrage by Hamas — the militant group that has ruled Gaza since 2007 and does not recognize Israel — continued to take its toll on Israeli cities, including Tel Aviv, the commercial center of the country.

周一凌晨,以色列战机轰炸了加沙,加剧了该沿海飞地的平民的苦难。同时,自2007年以来一直统治加沙且不承认以色列的激进组织哈马斯(Hamas)继续对以色列城市——包括该国的商业中心特拉维夫——发射火箭弹,造成重大损失。

As the civilian casualties grow, the conflict has polarized Israeli society, and the world, like seldom before, and it has spurred unrest within Israel and the occupied territories that has been more intense than any in years.

随着平民伤亡人数的增加,冲突使以色列社会两极化,世界也陷入空前的分化,在以色列和占领区内激起比以往任何时候都更剧烈的动荡。

Here is what is driving the conflict, and its arc so far:

以下是导致冲突的原因,以及到目前为止的发展过程:

Who is being killed?

谁在被杀死?

Israeli airstrikes and artillery barrages on Gaza, an impoverished and densely packed enclave of two million people, have killed at least 197 Palestinians, including 92 women and children, between May 10 and Sunday evening, producing stark images of destruction that have reverberated around the world.

5月10日至周日晚上,以色列在加沙地带——贫穷而拥挤的200万人口聚居区——进行空袭和炮轰,已杀死至少197名巴勒斯坦人,其中包括92名妇女和儿童,造成了触目惊心的毁灭画面,在全球引发强烈反响。

加沙周六晚间遭到以色列袭击。巴勒斯坦人抬着被杀的儿童的尸体。

In the other direction, Hamas missiles have rained over Israeli towns and cities, sowing fear and killing at least 10 Israeli residents, including two children — a greater civilian toll within Israel than during the last war, in 2014, which lasted more than seven weeks.

反过来,哈马斯的导弹如雨点般在以色列城镇上空坠落,造成恐慌并杀死至少十名以色列居民,其中包括两名儿童。这次以色列境内的平民伤亡人数比2014年历时超过七周的上一次战争还要多。

Israeli strategists and representatives describe the Gaza campaign as being aimed at destroying as much of Hamas’s infrastructure as possible, including the group’s network of rocket factories and underground tunnels — a subterranean transit system that the Israel military refers to as “the metro.”

以色列策略人士和议员将加沙战役的目的描述为尽可能摧毁哈马斯的基础设施,包括该组织的火箭工厂网络和地下隧道——一个被以色列军方称为“地铁”(the metro)的地下运输系统。

But Israel has come under increasing international criticism for the growing number of children that have been killed in airstrikes on Gaza. Images of children’s bodies have circulated on social media in recent days, along with the video of a bereft Gaza father comforting his wailing infant — the only one of his five children to survive an Israeli airstrike. Among the deaths have been eight children killed in a single airstrike at a refugee camp.

但是,由于在加沙空袭中丧生的儿童人数不断增加,以色列受到了国际社会越来越多的批评。最近几天,在社交媒体上流传着儿童尸体的图像,还有一个丧失亲人的加沙父亲抚慰自己哭泣的婴儿的视频。他的五个孩子中,仅这名婴儿幸免于以色列空袭。有八名儿童死于对一个难民营的同一次袭击

On the Israeli side, one of the children killed was a 5-year-old Israeli boy who died after a rocket fired from Gaza made a direct hit on the building next door to his aunt’s apartment, where he was visiting with his mother and older sister.

在以色列方面,被杀的孩子之一是一个五岁的以色列男孩,从加沙发射的火箭弹直接击中了他姑姑公寓隔壁的建筑物,当时他正与母亲和姐姐探望姑姑。

Some people have been hurt or killed in a burst of unrest in mixed-population cities in Israel, including in Lod, where two people died. And in the occupied West Bank, at least 10 Palestinians were killed by Israeli security forces over the weekend.

多族裔混居的以色列城市爆发骚乱,多人受伤或丧生,包括在卢德的两人。周末,在被占领的西岸,至少有十名巴勒斯坦人被以色列安全部队打死。

How did the current conflict start?

当前的冲突是如何开始的?

The conflict erupted a week ago, on May 10, when weeks of simmering tensions in Jerusalem among Palestinian protesters, the police and right-wing Israelis escalated, against the backdrop of a longstanding battle for control of a city sacred to Jews, Arabs and Christians.

冲突在一周前的5月10日爆发,当时巴勒斯坦示威者、警察和右翼以色列人在耶路撒冷持续数周的紧张局势升级,这一事件发生在巴以双方长期争夺耶路撒冷的控制权的背景下。耶路撒冷是犹太人、阿拉伯人和基督徒的圣城。

The root of the latest violence is an intense dispute over East Jerusalem, which is predominantly Palestinian. Protests had gone on for days ahead of a Supreme Court ruling, originally expected on May 10 but then postponed, on the eviction of several Palestinian families from East Jerusalem. Israeli officials described it as a dispute over real estate. Many Arabs called it part of a wider Israeli campaign to force Palestinians out of the city, describing it as ethnic cleansing.

最近一次的暴力的源自一场关于巴勒斯坦人占绝大多数的东耶路撒冷的激烈争端。最高法院原定于5月10日对东耶路撒冷数个巴勒斯坦家庭的驱逐作出裁决,在此之前人们已经进行了数日的抗议活动,裁决被推迟。以色列官员称这是一场房地产纠纷。许多阿拉伯人称其为种族清洗,是以色列将巴勒斯坦人赶出城市的更广泛运动的一部分。

The protests sharply intensified after Israeli police prevented Palestinians from gathering near one of the Old City’s ancient gates, as they have customarily done during the holy month of Ramadan. The police responded on May 10 by raiding the Aqsa Mosque compound, one of Islam’s holiest sites, to keep Palestinian protesters from throwing stones, they said. Hundreds of Palestinians and a score of police officers were wounded in the skirmish.

巴勒斯坦人在斋月期间按照惯例聚集在旧城的古老城门前,被以色列警察阻止后,抗议活动急剧加剧。警方说,他们于5月10日采取行动突袭了阿克萨清真寺,以防止巴勒斯坦示威者投掷石块。阿克萨清真寺是伊斯兰教最神圣的地方之一。在这场小规模冲突中,数百名巴勒斯坦人和数十名警察受伤。

Militants in Gaza then began firing rockets in Jerusalem’s direction, to which Israel responded with airstrikes on Gaza. Barrages by both sides intensified through the week, as did casualties — though Gazans have suffered a disproportionate number of deaths.

然后,加沙的武装分子开始向耶路撒冷方向发射火箭弹,以色列以空袭加沙作为回应。一周以来,双方的战火都在加剧,人员伤亡也在增加——尽管加沙死亡人数远超以色列。

What kind of arsenal does Hamas have?

哈马斯拥有什么样的武库?

Despite Israel’s surveillance capability and overwhelming military firepower next door, Palestinian militants in Gaza have managed to amass a large arsenal of rockets with enhanced range in the 16 years since Israel vacated the coastal enclave, which it had occupied after the 1967 war.

尽管以色列拥有强大的监视能力和压倒性的军事火力,但在以色列撤出这块1967年战争结束后占领的沿海飞地后的16年里加沙地带的巴勒斯坦武装分子已积累了大量射程更远的火箭弹。

Hamas, with help from allies outside Gaza — including Iran, according to Israeli and Hamas officials — has parlayed that arsenal into an increasingly lethal threat. Since the conflict erupted last week, Hamas has launched more than 3,000 rockets toward Israeli cities and towns. The intensity of the barrages has put the Israeli city of Tel Aviv, among others, under greater threat than in previous conflicts.

据以色列和哈马斯官员称,在加沙以外的盟友(包括伊朗)的帮助下,哈马斯已将这些武器转化为一种日益致命的威胁。自上周冲突爆发以来,哈马斯已经向以色列城镇发射了3000多枚火箭弹。密集火力使以色列的特拉维夫等地面临比以往冲突中更大的威胁

Beyond tunnels and rockets, Israeli military experts and officials say there is another lesser-discussed and murky threat: clandestine naval commandoes entering or hitting Israel by sea, and waging potential attacks at energy facilities or populated settlements. On Monday, Israel’s military released a video showing Israeli defense forces destroying a vessel that it said was suspected of being on its way to carry out an attack on Israeli waters.

除了隧道和火箭弹,以色列军事专家和官员表示,还有一种较少被讨论的模糊威胁:秘密海军突击队进入以色列或从海上袭击以色列,对能源设施或人口定居点发动潜在袭击。周一,以色列军方公布了一段视频,显示以色列国防军击毁了一艘船只。以色列称,该船被怀疑正前往以色列水域发动袭击。

What is the Iron Dome?

什么是“铁穹”(Iron Dome)?

As the worst violence in years rages, each night the sky is lit up by rockets fired from Gaza, and by the guided projectiles of Israel’s Iron Dome defense system shooting up to counter them. The images of the tense call-and-response barrages have been among the most widely shared online, even as the toll wrought by the violence becomes clear only in the light of the next day’s dawn.

随着多年来最严重的暴力事件肆虐不休,每天晚上,夜空都被从加沙发射的火箭弹和以色列“铁穹”防御系统的制导炮弹照亮。激烈的炮火彼此呼应的图像在网上得到了最广泛的分享,尽管暴力造成的伤亡只有到第二天的黎明才会清晰起来。

周三,以色列发射的“铁穹”反导弹系统拦截从加沙地带发射的火箭。摄于以色列南部的阿什基伦。

The Iron Dome missile defense system became operational in 2011 and got its biggest first test over eight days in November 2014, when Gaza militants fired some 1,500 rockets aimed at Israel. While Israeli officials claimed a success rate of up to 90 percent during that conflict, outside experts were skeptical. The system’s interceptors — just 6 inches wide and 10 feet long — rely on miniature sensors and onboard computer processors to zero in on short-range rockets.

“铁穹”导弹防御系统于2011年投入使用,并在2014年11月接受了第一次为期八天的大考验,当时加沙武装分子向以色列发射了约1500枚火箭弹。虽然以色列官员声称该系统在那场冲突中的成功率高达90%,但外部专家对此表示怀疑。该系统的拦截器只有六英寸宽、十英尺长,依靠微型传感器和机载计算机处理器来锁定短程火箭弹。

While Israel has suffered casualties and the psychological terror of incoming rockets, the system is clearly winnowing out much of the daily rocket fire.

虽然以色列遭受了伤亡和火箭弹袭击带来的心理恐惧,但每日火箭弹袭击的大部分显然已经被该系统清除。

亲以色列和亲巴勒斯坦的拥护者上周在伦敦市中心的唐宁街外示威。

How are politics on each side influencing events?

双方的政治对事件有何影响?

Intense political struggles for leadership of Israel and the Palestinian Authority are part of the backdrop for the fighting. After four inconclusive elections in Israel in two years, no one has been able to form a governing coalition. But Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, on trial on corruption charges, has been able to remain in office, and hopes that Israelis will rally around him in the crisis.

以色列和巴勒斯坦民族权力机构内部争夺领导权的激烈政治斗争是这场战斗的背景之一。以色列在两年内举行了四次选举,但都没有结果,没有人能够组成一个执政联盟。但是,因腐败指控受审的以色列总理本雅明·内塔尼亚胡(Benjamin Netanyahu)仍然能够留任,他希望以色列人能在这场危机中团结在他身边。

In Palestinian elections that were recently postponed, Hamas hoped to take control of the Palestinian Authority, and has positioned itself as the defender of Jerusalem. It sought to reinforce that claim by firing rockets after the Israeli police raided the Aqsa Mosque compound in Jerusalem’s Old City.

在最近被推迟的巴勒斯坦选举中,哈马斯希望控制巴勒斯坦民族权力机构,并将自己定位为耶路撒冷的捍卫者。在以色列警方突袭耶路撒冷老城的阿克萨清真寺后,它试图通过发射火箭弹来强化这一说法。

How did the last conflict, in 2014, unfold?

2014年发生的上一次冲突是如何展开的?

In 2014, Israel invaded Gaza after 10 days of aerial bombardment failed to stop Palestinian militants from showering Israeli cities with rockets. The bloody conflict, which lasted for 50 days in July and August, ended in a truce. By then, 2,251 Palestinians, of whom 1,462 were civilians, had died. Israel had lost 67 soldiers and six civilians, according to the United Nations Human Rights Council.

2014年,以色列对加沙进行了十天的空中轰炸,但未能阻止巴勒斯坦武装分子向以色列城市发射大量火箭弹。这场血腥冲突在7月和8月持续了50天后,以停火告终。彼时已有2251名巴勒斯坦人死亡,其中1462人为平民。根据联合国人权理事会,以色列损失了67名士兵和六名平民。

Israeli leaders agreed to to halt hostilities under intense diplomatic pressure and with increasing casualties on both sides. At the time, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry seemed to calculate that a succession of short truces could be cobbled together to begin unwinding the conflict.

在巨大的外交压力和双方不断增加的伤亡情况下,以色列领导人同意停止敌对行动。当时,美国国务卿约翰·克里(John Kerry)似乎认为,可以将连续的短期休战协议拼凑起来,从而开始解除冲突。

2014年7月16日,以色列空袭在加沙市的一个海滩上炸死了三个男孩。

Accepting a truce offered Israel an opportunity to thwart the threat of tunnels being used to attack or kidnap its citizens, without risking more of the civilian casualties in the Gaza Strip that were turning world opinion against it.

接受停火协议为以色列提供了一个机会,可以阻止隧道被用来袭击或绑架其公民的威胁,同时又不会令加沙地带产生更多平民伤亡,后者让世界舆论对以色列产生了敌意。

Hamas, too, faced pressure to accept the truce, not only from international negotiators but from many Palestinians in the Gaza Strip who were suffering under continuous Israeli bombardment and grappling with the devastation and destruction around them.

哈马斯也面临着接受停火协议的压力,压力不仅来自国际谈判人员,还来自加沙地带的许多巴勒斯坦人,他们正在遭受以色列的持续轰炸,努力应对周围的破坏和毁灭。