三千年前的古埃及城市重见天日 房间留存各类生活用具

2021.04.13

如果想知道几千年前的秘密,只有考古发掘才能办到。近日埃及新发掘出一座有三千年历史的古城,古城中不仅有大型面包房,街道两旁的房屋内还留存了陶罐、纺织工具等各种生活用具。

 

Credit: From Dr. Zahi Hawass/Facebook

 

A group of archaeologists has found the largest ancient city ever discovered in Egypt, dating back 3,000 years.

一队考古学家发现了一座有三千年历史的埃及古城,是迄今为止在埃及发现的最大古城。

 

The city, named "The Rise of Aten," was discovered under the sand on the western bank of Luxor, lead archaeologist Zahi Hawass said in a statement.

首席考古学家札希·哈瓦斯在一份声明中称,他们在卢克索西岸的沙滩下发现了这座名为“太阳神崛起”的城市。

Aten ['etən]: n. 阿托恩(古埃及信奉的太阳神)

 

It dates to the reign of King Amenhotep III, who ruled Egypt between 1391 and 1353 BCE, according to the statement.

声明称,这座古城的年代可以追溯到阿蒙霍特普三世的统治时期,阿蒙霍特普三世是公元前1391年到1353年间统治古埃及的法老。

 

"It was the largest administrative and industrial settlement in the era of the Egyptian empire," Hawass said.

哈瓦斯说:“该城是埃及帝国时期最大的行政和工业基地。”

 

"The Rise of Aten" is the largest ancient city ever discovered in Egypt. Credit: From Dr. Zahi Hawass/Facebook

 

Archaeologists found the "city's streets flanked by houses," with intact walls up to 10 feet high and "rooms filled with tools of daily life ... left by the ancient residents as if it were yesterday," such as rings, colored pottery vessels, casting molds to make amulets, pots used to carry meat, and tools for spinning, weaving and metal and glass-making.

考古学家发现“城市街道的两侧房屋林立”,还有高达10英尺(约3米)的完整墙壁,“房间里装满了日常生活用具……都是古代居民留下来的,仿佛昨天还有人住过”。这些用具包括戒指、彩陶容器、制作护身符的压铸模具、放肉的罐子,以及纺织、冶金和制造玻璃的工具。

amulet [ˈæmjʊlət]: n. 护身符,避邪物

 

The team also found a large bakery, "complete with ovens and storage pottery," whose size suggests it was used to cater to a "very large number of workers and employees."

考古队还发现了一个大型面包房,“包括烤炉和储存食物的陶器”,面包房的规模表明这里曾经为“数量庞大的工人和雇员”提供食物。

 

Other discoveries include the skeleton of a person buried with arms stretched out to the side and rope wrapped around the knees.

其他发现包括一具手臂伸向身体两侧、膝盖处被绳子缠住的人体骨骼。

 

"The location and position of this skeleton are rather odd, and more investigations are in progress," according to the statement, which describes it as a "remarkable burial."

声明称:“这具人体骨骼的位置和姿势都相当奇怪,正在进行进一步调查。”该声明称之为“不可思议的埋葬方式。”

 

Skeletons were also found buried in the city. Credit: From Dr. Zahi Hawass/Facebook

 

"The discovery of this lost city is the second most important archeological discovery since the tomb of Tutankhamun," Betsy Bryan, professor of egyptology at Johns Hopkins University, said in the statement.

约翰斯霍普金斯大学埃及古物学教授贝琪·布赖恩在声明中称:“这座失落之城的发现是自图坦卡蒙陵墓以来第二个最重要的考古发现。”

 

The team found an inscription dating back to 1337 BCE, which confirms the city was active during the reign of Amenhotep III's son, Akhenaten.

考古队发现了一段铭文,时间可追溯到公元前1337年,证实这座城市在阿蒙霍特普三世之子阿肯纳顿在位期间是活跃的。

 

Historians believe that one year after the pot was made the city was abandoned and the capital moved to Amarna, 250 miles to the north, but the reasons for doing so remain unknown, according to the statement.

声明称,历史学家认为,在刻有铭文的罐子制成一年后,这座城市就被废弃了,首都迁到了该城以北250英里(约400千米)处的阿马尔那,但是原因未知。

 

"The discovery of the Lost City not only will give us a rare glimpse into the life of the Ancient Egyptians at the time where the Empire was at his wealthiest but will help us shed light on one of history's greatest mystery: why did Akhenaten and Nefertiti decide to move to Amarna?" Bryan added.

布赖恩补充道:“这种失落之城的发现不仅让我们有难得的机会一窥埃及帝国最富有时期古埃及人的生活,还有助于破解历史上最大的谜团之一:为什么阿肯纳顿和纳芙蒂蒂决定迁都到阿马尔那?”

Nefertiti: 纳芙蒂蒂(公元前1370年-前1330年)是埃及法老阿肯纳顿的王后。纳芙蒂蒂是埃及史上最重要的王后之一,传说她不但拥有令人惊艳的绝世美貌,也是古埃及历史中最有权力与地位的女性之一。

 

The excavation, which began in September 2020, has unearthed most of the southern part of the city. However, the northern region is still to be unearthed.

这次发掘从2020年9月开始,古城的南部大多已出土,不过北部还有待发掘。

 

A large cemetery and tombs, similar to those in the Valley of Kings, were also uncovered but have not been explored yet.

考古队还发掘出和帝王谷类似的大型公墓和陵墓,但是尚未进行勘探。

 

"Only further excavations of the area will reveal what truly happened 3500 years ago," the statement said.

声明称:“只有对该地区进行进一步发掘才能揭示3500年前的真相。”

 

英文来源:美国有线电视新闻网

翻译&编辑:丹妮


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