2020年美国侵犯人权报告(双语全文)

2021.03.25

国务院新闻办公室3月24日发表《2020年美国侵犯人权报告》。

2021年2月22日,《今日美国》报纸头版。

 

全文如下:

 

2020年美国侵犯人权报告
The Report on Human Rights Violations in the United States in 2020

中华人民共和国
国务院新闻办公室
2021年3月
The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China
March 2021

 

序言
Foreword

“我无法呼吸!”
——乔治·弗洛伊德
“I can’t breathe!”
-- George Floyd

美国国会大厦暴力事件乱象是政治高层散布重重谎言、蔑视民主、煽动仇恨和分裂导致的恶果。
——德国总统施泰因迈尔
“The scenes (the U.S. Capitol building violence) we have seen are the result of lies and more lies, of division and contempt for democracy, of hatred and rabble-rousing -- even from the very highest levels.”
-- German President Frank-Walter Steinmeier

2020年新冠肺炎疫情全球肆虐,对人类生命安全构成重大威胁。病毒没有国界,疫情不分种族,战胜疫情需要世界各国守望相助、团结合作。但一向自认例外和优越的美国,不仅自身疫情失控,而且与之相伴的还有政治失序、种族冲突、社会撕裂,留下了“山巅之城”“民主灯塔”侵犯人权的新纪录。
In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic wreaked havoc around the world, posing a major threat to human security. The virus respects no borders, nor does the epidemic distinguish between races. To defeat the epidemic requires mutual help, solidarity and cooperation among all countries. However, the United States, which has always considered itself an exception and superior, saw its own epidemic situation go out of control, accompanied by political disorder, inter-ethnic conflicts, and social division. It further added to the human rights violations in the country, the so-called “city upon a hill” and “beacon of democracy.”

——政府应对疫情任性妄为导致失控,酿成人间悲剧。美国人口不足世界总人口的5%,但截至2021年2月底,其新冠肺炎确诊病例数却超过全球总数的25%,死亡病例数占全球总数的近20%,超过50万美国民众失去了宝贵的生命。
-- The epidemic went out of control and turned into a human tragedy due to the government’s reckless response. By the end of February 2021, the United States, home to less than 5 percent of the world’s population, accounted for more than a quarter of the world’s confirmed COVID-19 cases and nearly one-fifth of the global deaths from the disease. More than 500,000 Americans lost their lives due to the virus.

——民主制度失序引发政治乱象,进一步撕裂美国社会。金钱政治扭曲压制民意,选举成为富人阶层“独角戏”,人们对美国民主制度的信心下降至20年来最低点。政治极化日益严重,仇恨政治演变为全国性瘟疫,选后暴乱导致国会沦陷。
-- Disorder in American democratic institutions led to political chaos, further tearing the fabric of society apart. Money-tainted politics distorted and suppressed public opinion, turning elections into a “one-man show” of the wealthy class and people’s confidence in the American democratic system dropped to the lowest level in 20 years. Amid increasing political polarization, hate politics evolved into a national plague, and the Capitol was stormed in post-election riots.

——少数族裔遭受系统性种族歧视,处境艰难。有色人种在美国18岁以下未成年人中的比例约为三分之一,却占被监禁未成年人总数的三分之二。非洲裔新冠肺炎感染率是白人的3倍,死亡率是白人的2倍,被警察杀死的概率是白人的3倍。四分之一亚裔年轻人成为种族欺凌的目标。
-- Ethnic minority groups suffered systematic racial discrimination and were in a difficult situation. People of color made up about one-third of all minors under the age of 18 in the United States but two-thirds of all of the country’s imprisoned minors. African Americans are three times as likely as whites to be infected with the coronavirus, twice as likely to die from COVID-19, and three times as likely to be killed by the police. One in four young Asian Americans has been the target of racial bullying.

——枪支交易和枪击事件创历史新高,人们对社会秩序失去信心。在疫情失控、种族抗议和选举冲突交织影响下,2020年美国的枪支销量高达2300万支,比2019年激增64%,首次购买枪支的人数超过800万人。美国全年共有超过41500人死于枪击,平均每天达110多人,全国共发生592起大规模枪击事件,平均每天超过1.6起。
-- Gun trade and shooting incidents hit a record high, and people’s confidence in social order waned. Americans bought 23 million guns in 2020 against the background of an out-of-control epidemic, accompanied by racial justice protests and election-related conflicts, a surge of 64 percent compared with 2019. First-time gun buyers exceeded 8 million. More than 41,500 people were killed in shooting incidents across the United States in the year, an average of more than 110 a day, and there were 592 mass shootings nationwide, an average of more than 1.6 a day.

——非洲裔男子乔治·弗洛伊德被白人警察残忍跪压致死,引燃美国社会怒火。50个州爆发广泛持续的种族抗议浪潮,政府武力镇压示威民众,1万多人被逮捕,大批新闻记者频遭无端攻击和拘捕。
-- George Floyd, an African American, died after being brutally kneeled on his neck by a white police officer, sparking a national outcry. Widespread protests for racial justice erupted in 50 states. The U.S. government suppressed demonstrators by force, and more than 10,000 people were arrested. A large number of journalists were attacked and arrested for no reason.

——贫富差距加速扩大,底层民众生活苦不堪言。疫情失控导致大规模失业潮,数千万人失去医疗保险,六分之一美国人、四分之一美国儿童面临饥饿威胁。弱势群体成为政府消极应对疫情的最大牺牲品。
-- The gap between the rich and the poor widened, with the people at the bottom of society living in misery. The epidemic led to mass unemployment. Tens of millions of people lost health insurance coverage. One in six Americans and one in four American children were at risk of hunger. Vulnerable groups became the biggest victims of the government’s reckless response to the epidemic.

面对如此糟糕的严重人权问题,美国政府不仅缺乏应有的反思,还对世界上其他国家的人权状况说三道四,充分暴露了其在人权问题上的双重标准及虚伪性。当今时代,人类社会发展正处于一个新的十字路口,面临新的严峻挑战。希望美方能够怀谦卑之心、悯国人疾苦,放下虚伪、霸道、大棒和双重标准,与国际社会相向而行,共同构建人类命运共同体。
The U.S. government, instead of introspecting on its own terrible human rights record, kept making irresponsible remarks on the human rights situation in other countries, exposing its double standards and hypocrisy on human rights. Standing at a new crossroads, mankind is faced with new, grave challenges. It is hoped that the U.S. side will show humility and compassion for the suffering of its own people, drop hypocrisy, bullying, “Big Stick” and double standards, and work with the international community to build a community with a shared future for humanity.

 

一、疫情严重失控酿成人间悲剧
I. Incompetent Pandemic Containment Leads to Tragic Outcome

美国号称具有世界上最丰富的医疗资源和医疗护理能力,应对新冠肺炎疫情却一片混乱,成为世界上确诊人数和死亡人数最多的国家。
The United States claimed to be most abundant in medical resources and healthcare capacity, yet its response to the COVID-19 pandemic was chaotic, causing it to lead the world in the numbers of confirmed COVID-19 cases and related deaths.

应对疫情不力造成惨重后果。根据美国约翰斯·霍普金斯大学统计的数据,截至2021年2月底,美国新冠肺炎确诊病例总数已超过2800万例,死亡病例总数超过50万例。美国人口不足世界总人口的5%,其新冠肺炎确诊病例数却超过全球总数的25%,死亡病例数占全球总数的近20%。美国有线电视新闻网2020年12月20日报道,仅加利福尼亚州就已经报告了184.5万例新冠肺炎确诊病例和22599例死亡病例,相当于每10万人中就有4669人确诊、57人死亡,这还不包括许多未得到诊断的轻症或无症状感染病例。如果美国能够科学应对,事情本不必如此。美国流行病学家、疾病控制与预防中心原负责人威廉·福格认为,“这是一场屠杀”。(注1)
Incompetent pandemic response led to dire consequences. A tally by Johns Hopkins University showed that as of the end of February 2021, the United States has registered more than 28 million confirmed COVID-19 cases, with related deaths exceeding 500,000. With a population of less than 5 percent of the world’s total, the United States accounted for more than 25 percent of all the confirmed cases and nearly 20 percent of the deaths. On Dec. 20, 2020, CNN reported that the state of California alone had reported 1.845 million COVID-19 cases and 22,599 deaths, which translates to roughly 4,669 known cases and 57 deaths for every 100,000 residents. Even these numbers don’t give the whole picture of the state, because many cases, including mild or asymptomatic infections, had not been diagnosed. Had the American authorities taken science-based measures to contain the pandemic, this could have been avoided. But since they had not, the pandemic, as epidemiologist and former head of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) William Foege had put it, is “a slaughter” to the United States.

领导人无视科学警告刻意淡化疫情风险。根据《纽约时报》《华盛顿邮报》等媒体复盘的美国疫情时间线,美国特朗普政府一再忽视疫情警告。白宫国家安全委员会在2020年1月初就收到情报,预测病毒将在美国蔓延。时任白宫贸易与制造业政策办公室主任彼得·纳瓦罗在1月29日撰写的一份备忘录中,详细列举了疫情暴发的潜在风险:可能会有多达50万人死亡,并造成数万亿美元的经济损失。时任美国卫生与公众服务部部长亚历克斯·阿扎等卫生官员和医学专家也多次警告疫情在美国暴发的危险。但美国特朗普政府不仅对各种警告置之不理,反而专注于控制信息传播,甚至发布虚假信息误导民众,称新冠肺炎病毒是“大号流感”,感染病毒的风险和死亡率“非常低”,疫情会很快“奇迹般地消失”,导致防控疫情的“黄金窗口期”被白白浪费。《纽约时报》网站2020年4月13日报道指出,时任美国政府领导人宁肯相信自己的直觉也不相信科学,错失时机,断送了大量无辜的生命。
National leaders ignored warnings from experts and downplayed the seriousness of the pandemic. According to the timeline of COVID-19 pandemic in the United States released by media outlets including The New York Times and The Washington Post, the Trump administration had repeatedly ignored alarms regarding the risks of the pandemic. In early January 2020, a National Security Council office had already received intelligence reports predicting the spread of the virus to the United States. In a Jan. 29, 2020 memo, then White House trade adviser Peter Navarro projected that a coronavirus pandemic might lead to as many as half a million deaths and trillions of dollars in economic losses. A number of health officials, including then Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar, and medical experts also warned of the possibility of a pandemic in the United States. None of the aforementioned warnings brought the imminent pandemic to the Trump administration’s attention. Instead, the administration focused on controlling the message, and released misleading signals to the public by claiming “the risk of the virus to most Americans was very low,” suggesting that the coronavirus is no worse than the common flu, and stating the virus will “miraculously go away” when the weather gets warmer. Thus, the country lost crucial weeks for pandemic prevention and control. An article published on the website of The New York Times on April 13, 2020 commented that, then American leader’s “preference for following his gut rather than the data cost time, and perhaps lives.”

政府选择不作为导致疫情失控。在美国新冠肺炎死亡病例超过30万人后,加利福尼亚大学洛杉矶分校医学教授戴维·哈耶斯-鲍提斯塔指出,美国其实不应死那么多人,是政府选择了不作为导致悲剧的发生。(注2)哥伦比亚大学疾病研究人员通过模型分析显示,如果美国政府2020年3月13日发布的疫情防控措施能够提前两星期,那么约83%的死亡是可以避免的。(注3)英国医学期刊《柳叶刀》2020年5月17日罕有地发表社论指出,美国政府总是“着迷于”找到快速结束疫情的方式——疫苗、新药,甚至指望病毒会就这么消失了,但事实是只有依赖病毒检测、感染追踪及隔离等基本的公共卫生准则,才可能终结疫情。即便疫情已经在美国大范围蔓延,确诊病例和死亡病例已升至全球第一的情况下,特朗普政府出于政治私利,依然急于重启经济。沃克斯新闻网2020年8月11日评论称,一些州在4、5月份就忙于重启,使得病毒传播的重灾区从最初的纽约地区向南部、西部扩散,并最终扩散到全国其他地区。尽管许多医学研究已经证实佩戴口罩可以有效防止感染病毒,但时任美国政府领导人和一些州政府官员却长期拒绝实施强制口罩令。
Government inaction led to uncontrolled pandemic spread. “There’s no need for that many to have died. We chose, as a country, to take our foot off the gas pedal. We chose to, and that's the tragedy.” So commented David Hayes-Bautista, a professor of medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles, after the pandemic death toll hit 300,000 in the United States. Disease modelers with the Columbia University also estimated that, if the United States had begun locking down cities and limiting social contact on March 1, 2020, two weeks earlier than most people started staying home, about 83 percent of the nation’s pandemic-related deaths would have been avoided. An editorial from the website of medical journal The Lancet, published on May 17, 2020, commented that the U.S. government was obsessed with magic bullets -- vaccines, new medicines, or a hope that the virus will simply disappear. At the same time, it noted that only a steadfast reliance on basic public health principles, like testing, tracing, and isolation, would see the emergency brought to an end. Even when the pandemic is spreading in a vast area in the United States, the administration was hasty to restart the economy due to political concerns. According to news website Vox on Aug. 11, 2020, in April and May last year, several states rushed to reopen and caused the virus to shift to the South, West and eventually the rest of the United States. In addition, despite that experts had recommended people wear masks in public, the then American leader and some state officials had been extremely reluctant to issue any decree to make wearing masks mandatory.

疫情防控指挥混乱使得民众无所适从。美国有线电视新闻网2020年5月9日的评论指出,美国应对新冠肺炎疫情混乱不堪,缺乏全国性的指导方针和组织领导,各州只能自行其是,甚至不得不相互竞价争抢医疗物资。时任美国政府领导人与公共卫生机构、医学专家发布的有关疫情防控信息相互抵牾、反复无常。专家们呼吁联邦政府统筹全国病毒检测和医疗物资供应,领导人却让各地政府自己解决;联邦政府刚刚公布分阶段重启计划,领导人却接着呼吁各州加快重启;疾病控制与预防中心强烈建议公众佩戴口罩,领导人却长达几个月坚决拒绝佩戴口罩;更为荒诞的是,领导人竟提出让民众注射消毒剂治疗新冠肺炎。
Chaotic pandemic control and prevention measures caused confusion among the public. An article published by CNN on May 9, 2020 called the U.S. response to the pandemic “consistently inconsistent,” and noted that there were no national guidelines and no organized efforts to reopen the country beyond what measures states had taken. The article also said that in terms of pandemic control and prevention, public health officials say one thing while governors say another and the national leader says something else entirely. In addition, after the experts called for federal leadership, the then American leader left it to cities and states to solve national problems with testing and hospital supplies by themselves. When the federal government released a phased plan for reopening, the leader called on states to reopen faster. After the CDC recommended that people wear masks in public, the leader refused to do so for months. Even more ridiculously, the leader at one point advocated injecting bleach as a treatment.

任性自负推卸责任。尽管在疫情应对中昏招迭出,时任美国政府领导人却拒绝承认有任何失误,反而用各种说辞自我美化、推脱责任,罔顾事实将美国确诊病例全球居首归因于做了更多的核酸检测,声称自己对病毒检测系统的混乱低效和死亡率的不断攀升“没有任何责任”。而白宫顾问、美国国家过敏症和传染病研究所所长安东尼·福奇指出,数据不会说谎,美国确实是世界上新冠肺炎疫情最严重的国家。(注4)
National leaders shirked their responsibility out of arrogance. Despite one ludicrous idea after another, the then American leader refused to admit any fault. Instead, the leader invented all sorts of excuses to gloss over his mistakes while shirking from responsibilities. For one, the then leader insisted that the U.S. leads the world in COVID-19 cases because it tested more than any other country in the world. When asked about testing problems and rising deaths, the leader claimed he “doesn’t take responsibility at all.” However, White House adviser and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases director Anthony Fauci admitted that the numbers didn’t lie and the United States had the worst coronavirus outbreak in the world.

老年人成为政府抗疫不力的“牺牲品”。疫情中原本就面临更大风险的老年人群体,在混乱不堪的疫情防控体系中被进一步边缘化,面临着生命贬值、尊严贬损。2020年3月23日和4月20日,得克萨斯州副州长丹·帕特里克在接受福克斯新闻网采访时两次表示,“宁愿死也不愿看到公共卫生措施损害美国经济”。《圣迭戈工会论坛报》网站2020年8月18日报道,根据新冠肺炎病毒追踪项目公布的数据,养老院等长期护理机构中的居民占美国人口的比例不到1%,占新冠肺炎死亡人数的比例却超过40%。《华盛顿邮报》2020年5月9日的评论称,美国的抗疫行动成了“一场国家批准的屠杀”,它故意牺牲老年人、工人、非洲裔和拉美裔人口。
Senior citizens fell victims to the government’s incompetent response to COVID-19. Senior citizens are a group more susceptible to the pandemic, yet they have been further marginalized in the U.S. pandemic prevention and control chaos, with their lives becoming valueless and their dignity trampled upon. On March 23 and April 20, 2020, Dan Patrick, the lieutenant governor of Texas, told Fox News that he would rather die than see public health measures damage the U.S. economy and there are more important things than living. Furthermore, an Aug. 18, 2020 report published on The San Diego Union-Tribune website found that residents in long-term care facilities account for less than 1 percent of the U.S. population but more than 40 percent of COVID-19 deaths. A May 9, 2020 article from The Washington Post website called the U.S. pandemic control efforts “state-sanctioned killing,” where “the old, factory workers, and black and Hispanic Americans” were deliberately sacrificed.

贫困人口面临更严重感染威胁。研究发现,美国贫富差距和新冠肺炎疫情导致的死亡率密切相关。纽约州的基尼系数最高,同时其死亡人数也最高。(注5)英国《卫报》网站2020年3月21日报道,疫情期间美国富人优先进行新冠病毒检测,而低收入从业群体大多无法居家办公且不享有带薪病假,不得不为了维持生活使自己面临更大的感染风险。《洛杉矶时报》网站2020年5月8日报道,公共卫生官员指出,洛杉矶县低收入社区居民死于新冠肺炎的人数是其邻近富裕社区的3倍。盖洛普公司的一项调查显示,七分之一的美国成年人表示,如果自己或家庭成员出现新冠肺炎相关症状,将因为担心负担不起治疗费用放弃治疗。联合国极端贫困与人权问题特别报告员菲利普·奥尔斯顿指出,美国穷人正受到新冠肺炎病毒最严重的打击,更容易感染病毒,死亡率更高,而一个混乱的、注重企业利润的政府应对措施未能充分顾及他们的利益。
The poor faced greater threat of infection. Researchers found that the Gini Index, an economic barometer that ranks income inequality from 0 (total equality) to 1 (total inequality), was a strong predictor of COVID-19 deaths. New York State, which had one of the highest Gini Index numbers also had the highest number of fatalities in the nation by a margin. The Guardian website reported on March 21, 2020 that in the wake of the epidemic, it’s the wealthy and powerful first get coronavirus tests, while low-paid workers, most of whom have no paid sick leave and can’t do their work from home, put themselves at greater risk of contracting the virus in order to earn a living. Public health officials said, in Los Angeles County, residents of low-income communities are three times more likely to die of COVID-19 than those in wealthier neighborhoods, according to a report published on the Los Angeles Times website on May 8, 2020. A Gallup survey revealed that one in seven American adults said that if they or their family members developed symptoms related to COVID-19, they would probably give up medical treatment because they were worried that they could not afford the costs. The United Nations Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights, Philip Alston, also pointed out that the poor in the United States were being hit hardest by the COVID-19 pandemic. Low-income and poor people face far higher risks from the coronavirus due to chronic neglect and discrimination, and a muddled, corporate-driven federal response has failed them, he observed.

残障人士和无家可归者处境维艰。非营利组织“公平健康”2020年11月发布的一项研究显示,与普通人群相比,有智力和发育障碍的人死于新冠肺炎的可能性要高出3倍。(注6)《洛杉矶时报》网站2020年5月14日报道,疫情带来的经济冲击使得美国无家可归者人数暴涨45%。无家可归者中有很多年迈的老人和残障人士,他们原本身体健康状况就不佳,生活和卫生条件恶劣,是病毒的易感群体。疫情期间,流落街头的无家可归者遭到严厉驱逐,被迫住进临时收容所。路透社网站2020年4月23日报道,美国各地的无家可归者收容所因人员拥挤难以保持社交距离,使得病毒极易传播。《纽约时报》网站2020年4月13日报道称,无家可归者收容所成为纽约市疫情的“定时炸弹”,超过1.7万人住在为单身成年人准备的集中收容所中,睡在床上几乎可以手碰手。《波士顿环球报》网站2020年5月4日报道,波士顿市无家可归者确诊感染新冠病毒的人数占当地该群体已接受检测人口的三分之一。
The handicapped and the homeless were in dire straits. A study released in November 2020 by the nonprofit FAIR Health found that people with intellectual and developmental disabilities are three times more likely to die of COVID-19, compared to the general population. The website of the Los Angeles Times reported on May 14, 2020 that with the coronavirus-induced shock to the economy crippling businesses of all sizes and leaving millions of Americans out of work, homelessness in the United States could grow as much as 45 percent in a year. Many of the homeless Americans are elderly or disabled people. Given their originally poor physical health and bad living and hygienic conditions, they are susceptible to the virus. During the pandemic, the homeless were evicted and pushed into makeshift shelters. The website of Reuters reported on April 23, 2020 that the crowded shelters across the United States made it impossible for the homeless who lived there to maintain social distance, which made it easier for the virus to spread. The New York Times website reported on April 13, 2020 that in the New York City, a crisis has taken hold in homeless shelters, as more than 17,000 men and women are sleeping in group or “congregate” shelters for single adults, with beds close enough for people sleeping in them to hold hands. The Boston Globe website reported on May 4, 2020 that, about one-third of the homeless people who were tested have tested positive for the novel coronavirus.

监狱疫情暴发威胁囚犯生命健康。美国广播公司网站2020年12月19日报道,美国至少已有27.5万名囚犯感染新冠肺炎,1700多名感染者死亡,监狱系统的感染率大大高于周边社区。根据美联社和非营利新闻组织“马歇尔项目”共同收集的数据,在州和联邦监狱管理局管理的监狱中,每5名囚犯中就有1人感染新冠肺炎,是普通人感染率的4倍多;其中24个州监狱的感染率更高,堪萨斯州一半囚犯感染,是该州总人口感染率的8倍;阿肯色州每7名囚犯中就有4人感染。
Outbreak in jails threatened lives of inmates. ABC News reported on Dec. 19, 2020 that at least 275,000 prisoners have been infected, of whom more than 1,700 have died, and nearly every prison system in the country has seen infection rates significantly higher than the communities around them. One of every five prisoners in facilities run by the federal Bureau of Prisons has had coronavirus, according to data collected by The Associated Press and The Marshall Project, a nonprofit news organization covering the criminal justice system. They also found that 24 state prison systems have had even higher infection rates. Half of the prisoners in Kansas have been infected with COVID-19 — eight times the rate of cases among the state’s overall population. In Arkansas, four of every seven have had the virus.

疫情失控给美国人心理带来严重阴影。特朗普政府应对疫情不力对美国人造成的负面影响超过病毒本身,人们感到压力重重、孤立无援。(注7)美国疾病控制与预防中心2020年8月14日公布的一项研究显示,2020年4月至6月,40.9%的成年受访者表示出现心理健康问题,30.9%的成年受访者表示患有焦虑或抑郁症,而这些数字只是冰山一角。与此同时,13%的成年受访者表示开始或增加使用药物,11%的成年受访者认真考虑过自杀。2020年6月发布的一项研究显示,疫情期间美国自杀救助热线电话接听数量上升了47%,某些危机干预热线电话接听数量暴涨300%。(注8)
Out-of-control pandemic brought Americans psychological pressure. The Trump administration’s reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected Americans more than the virus itself, which has left people stressed and isolated. In a study published by the CDC on Aug. 14, 2020, due to stay-at-home orders, 40.9 percent of adults reported at least one adverse mental or behavioral health condition, 30.9 percent reported either anxiety or depression and those numbers are just the tip of the iceberg. The same CDC study showed that 13 percent of people surveyed by the CDC during the same time said that they started or increased their substance use and 11 percent seriously considered suicide. A separate study released in June 2020 showed calls to suicide hotlines went up 47 percent nationwide during the COVID-19 pandemic with some crisis lines experiencing a 300-percent increase.

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