译文：The same philosophy applied to the layout of the gardens and parks, including the Imperial Garden in the Forbidden City, the Taiye Lake in the Imperial City, the altars and temples in the Inner City, and even the “Three Hills and Five Gardens” in the western suburbs.
译文：Gubeikou, a strategic gateway north of Beijing and an important pass of the Great Wall, was built in the Ming dynasty.
Buddhist scriptures on the rocks
译文：The economic and cultural development of Beijing was speeded up by two events — the building of the Grand Canal and the carving of Buddhist scriptures on the rocks of present-day Fangshan in Beijing’s suburbs.
译文：The 1000-year-old gingko tree, about 30 meters high and seven meters in perimeter, is said to have been planted in the Liao dynasty. The Qing emperor Qianlong gave it the name of “Imperial Tree.”
The Prayer Hall
译文：The mosque has a concentrated and symmetrical layout. The main buildings include the Prayer Hall, the Minaret, the Tower for Observing the Moon, and two Stele Pavilions.
stone arch bridge
译文：It took three years to complete the Lugou Bridge, otherwise known as Marco Polo Bridge, in 1192 under Emperor Zhangzong of the Jurchen dynasty. Being 266.5 meters long and 7.5 meters wide, the stone bridge has 11 arches. Renovated under the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, it was the longest stone arch bridge in North China in those days and remains the oldest one in Beijing today.
7. 简仪 abridged armilla
圭表 colossal gnomon
译文：Guo Shoujing (1231-1316), an outstanding scientist, improved on the astronomical instruments developed by his predecessors and built an “abridged armilla” for measuring equatorial and horizontal coordinates. He also built a colossal gnomon for measuring the shadow of the sun.
8. 瓷器 porcelain
青花瓷器 blue-and-white porcelain
译文：The porcelain of Dadu was among the best produced under the Yuan dynasty, typical of which was celadon or blue-and-white porcelain.
译文：There had been no hill in the Imperial Garden of the Yuan dynasty. In the early years of the Ming dynasty, the “Forbidden City” in Nanjing leaned against a hill at its back. The palace zone in Beijing was given a similar feature. The earth excavated from the moat around the Forbidden City was used to build a 49-meter-high hill in the Imperial Garden, which was called His Majesty’s Hill under the Ming and changed to the Jing Hill under the Qing.
The Nine-Dragon Wall
译文：The Nine-Dragon Wall is a glazed-tile screen wall in front of the Palace of Peace and Longevity, It rests on a sumeru base of white stone and is covered with a yellow-tiled roof in palace style. The nine huge dragons in bas-relief are playing with balls against a backdrop of sea waves. They look vigorous and come to life. The surface of the screen wall is composed of 247 glazed tiles in seven colors, adding up to 29.4 meters in width and 3.5 meters in height.
译文：Hall for Dispelling Clouds in the Summer Palace. At the center of the hall is a nine-dragon throne where Empress Dowager Cixi received greetings from Emperor Guangxu and the officials on her birthday.
译文：Between the South Lake Island and the East Causeway is the rainbow-like Seventeen-Arch Bridge on the Kunming Lake. The bridge is 150 meters long and eight meters wide. The balusters are decorated with more than 500 stone lions which differ from one another in posture.
译文：Among Beijing’s square courtyards the largest ones were the mansions of princes. Princes of the Ming dynasty would be granted vassalages scattered around the country as soon as they grew up.