英汉概念结构对比

英汉概念结构对比 前者在用词和结构形式上一味追求词性、词序和词义的 机械式对应,在概念衔接和概念连贯上均有缺陷 […]

英汉概念结构对比

  • 前者在用词和结构形式上一味追求词性、词序和词义的
    机械式对应,在概念衔接和概念连贯上均有缺陷。
  • 后者是比较地道的译文。

1.我们享受公费医疗。

We enjoy free medical care.

We are entitled to free medical care.

2.我们需在各方面深化改革。

We need to deepen reform in all fields of endeavor. 

We need to deepen our commitment to reform in all fields of endeavor.

3.我们必须采取积极措施打击恐怖主义。

We must take active measures to fight terrorism.

We must take proactive measures to fight terrorism./ ( We must be proactive in fighting terrorism.)

4.你干那种事真是缺德。

You really lack morality in doing that.

That was very wicked of you.

一、整体处理法

  • 宏观上考虑句法、语义、语用、逻辑和社会文化等,
  • 微观上谋求形式和意义的 统一。

二、激活概念联想机制,实施两种语言的对接

词组:静态结构;  句子:动态结构

  • 同义近义概念结构联想
  • 反义概念结构联想
  • 关联概念结构联想

1.他们真是腰缠万贯。They are absolutely wallowing in money.

2.订货 place an order

我 们 向 该 厂 定 购 了 三 台车床。We placed an order for three lathes with the factory.

3.给某人开处方give sb. a prescription

医生给我开了个止痛药方。The doctor gave me a prescription for pain-killers.

4.开一张支票draw a check

他向在纽约一家与他有往来的银行开了一张 500 美元的支票。He drew a check for $500 on his New York bank.

5.给某人动手术perform an operation on sb.

她 将 为 他 施 行 肺 癌 切 除手术。She will perform an operation on him for cancer of the lung.

三、建立概念结构数据库

(一)以词为中心的数据库

1. 失之交臂        在比赛的最后关头他与金牌失之交臂。

The gold medal slipped from his grasp in the last moments of the race.

2. 安之若素      有些觉得很难适应退休的生活,但他却能安之若素。

Some people found retiring difficult, but he was taken it in his stride.

3. 驾轻就熟      起初她觉得这工作很难,但现在已驾轻就熟了。

She  found the job difficult as first, but now she's really getting into her stride.

4. 随遇而安      你最好随遇而安。

You'd better take things as they come.

5. 请多包涵      别对我们苛求,请多包涵。

Take us as you find us.

6. 捣捣浆糊      我们在训练时只是捣捣浆糊,寻寻开心。

We just muck around in training and have a laugh.

7. 套套近乎      吉姆得 跟 老 板 套 套 近 乎,因 为 他 企 盼 着 提 升(加薪)。

Jim has to keep his boss sweet because he needs to ask for a rise.

8.见多识广      你开计程车,可真是见多识广了。

As a taxi driver you really see life.

9. 为……划上了圆满句号      大使馆举行的宴会为总统的访问划上了圆满的句号。

The party at the embassy put the seal on the president's official visit.

10. 吃不了兜着走        这事要是老板知道,那可就要吃不了兜着走了。
There will be trouble with a vengeance when the boss hears it.

(二)以主题为中心的数据库

四、意义构建 

(一)概念映射

  1. 目前尚未有预防艾滋病病毒感染的疫苗:There is no vaccine against HIV infection.

     There is no vaccine against this form of computer virus. 目前尚无预防计算机病毒的电脑补丁。

(二)借代式映射    

  1. 我是来与你讲和的。我觉得我们应该停止争吵。I'v come to you bringing an olive branch. I think we ought to stop quarrelling.

(三)隐喻式映射

  1. 在非洲,美国影响力和声誉一落千丈。U.S. influence and prestige nosedived in Africa.

(四)类比映射

marathon:马拉松;talkthon:马拉松式谈话或座谈节目

 


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来源于:陆国强英汉概念结构对比

 

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