第八版新冠肺炎诊疗方案发布 明确潜伏期传染性

2020.08.20

8月19日,国家卫健委办公厅、国家中医药管理局办公室印发了《新型冠状病毒肺炎诊疗方案(试行第八版)》。

2020年7月30日,一名医务工作者在为一个儿童做核酸检测。(图片来源:中国日报)

 

The incubation period for COVID-19, the time between exposure to the virus and the onset of symptoms, is about three to seven days for most people and can be up to 14 days, during which these pre-symptomatic patients can be contagious, according to the latest guideline.
试行第八版诊疗方案提出,新冠肺炎的潜伏期(感染病毒到出现症状之前)多为3到7天,最长可达14天,潜伏期即有传染性。

The five days after symptoms occur is when the disease becomes highly transmissible, the guideline said.
发病后5天内传染性较强。

【单词讲解】

在说到“具有传染性的”这个意思时,新闻报道中常用的两个词是contagious和transmissible,在表示某个疾病具有传染性的时候,这两个词是可以互相替换使用的,contagious/transmissible disease。二者的区别在于,transmissible只能用来形容疾病的传染性,而contagious适用的范围要广得多,除了表示疾病本身的传染性之外,也可以用来形容染了传染病的患者,contagious patients。此外,我们形容一个人的笑声特别有感染力,也可以说contagious laughter;某个时尚潮流传播很快就是a contagious fad。

 

Respiratory droplets and close contact with infected patients are the primary methods of transmission,and exposure to virus-contaminated objects can also cause infection, it added.
经呼吸道飞沫和密切接触传播是主要的传播途径。接触病毒污染的物品也可造成感染。

病理改变

In terms of the effect of the novel coronavirus on the body, the guideline said the virus can damage the lungs, spleen, bone marrow, cardiovascular system, liver, kidney, brain and digestive tracts.
在新冠病毒对身体的病理改变方面,方案指出,病毒会对肺脏、脾脏、骨髓、心脏和血管、肝脏、肾脏、脑组织以及消化道等器官和组织产生破坏作用。

临床表现

The symptoms of infected children are typically mild, with nausea, diarrhea and shortness of breath being some of the more common ones, the guideline found. However, an extremely small number of children could develop Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome, showing symptoms similar to the rare Kawasaki disease, an inflammation in the walls of arteries throughout the body that primarily affects children younger than 5.
儿童患者多为轻症,常见症状有恶心、腹泻、呼吸短促等。不过,极少数儿童可有多系统炎症综合征(MIS-C),该综合征表现为全身血管壁上的炎症,其症状与川崎病类似,5岁以下儿童为多发人群。

【相关词汇】

流行病学特征 epidemiological characteristics

感染率 rate of infection

无症状感染者 asymptomatic cases

密切接触者 close contacts

医学观察 medical observation

传染途径 route of transmission

药品和疫苗研发 drug and vaccine development

(中国日报网英语点津 Helen)

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