2020年2月新闻热词汇总

2020.03.01

整个2月,新冠肺炎疫情持续在中国传播,上亿中国人民开始了“宅在家”的生活。在疫情的中心,湖北武汉,火神山、雷神山医院相继开始收治病人,随后又有多个方舱医院建成投入使用。医务人员夜以继日奋战在抗疫第一线,而为了保证普通民众的日常生活,各类电商开始发力,快递员成为了另一条“生命线”。这个月,我们的热词汇总基本都与新冠肺炎疫情相关。

火神山医院 Huoshenshan Hospital

Huoshenshan (Fire God Mountain) Hospital was delivered Sunday in Wuhan. It is dedicated to treating patients infected with the novel coronavirus.
武汉火神山医院于2月2日交付,将专门用于治疗新型冠状病毒感染患者。

 

A total of 1,400 medical staff from the armed forces are tasked with treating patients in Huoshenshan Hospital starting from Monday. The medics consist of 950 people from hospitals affiliated to the People's Liberation Army (PLA) Joint Logistic Support Force, and 450 from medical universities of the army, navy and air force of the PLA who were sent to Wuhan earlier.
军队抽组1400名医护人员于2月3日起承担武汉火神山新型冠状病毒感染肺炎专科医院医疗救治任务。此次抽组的医疗力量来自全军不同的医疗单位,其中,联勤保障部队所属医院抽组950人,先期抵达的陆军军医大学、海军军医大学、空军军医大学450人纳入统一编组。

为救治新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎患者,解决现有医疗资源不足的问题,武汉决定兴建火神山医院,建筑面积34000平方米,可容纳1000张床位。

The new facility will ease the shortage of beds in the city resulting from an increasing number of patients infected with the novel coronavirus.
新医院将缓解武汉因感染新型冠状病毒患者不断增加而导致的床位短缺问题。

作为一所传染病医院,大到房间的结构布局,小到一个下水管道,在各项防护措施方面,近乎苛刻。而充分借鉴小汤山医院,让火神山医院的设计与建设“站在巨人的肩膀上”。

——分区严格隔离(different sections are strictly separated)。通过设置清洁区(cleaning section)、半污染区(partially contaminated section)、污染区(contaminated section)及医护人员专用通道和病人专用通道(separate routes for medical staff and patients)的布置方式,严格避免交叉感染(cross infection)。医疗区与生活区同样严格隔离。医护人员进出病区设置包括风淋在内的专用卫生通过设施,最大限度地保护医护人员的健康安全。

——病房带上“口罩”(every ward is technically masked)。离地面架空30厘米的每间病房,放置两张病床,均设有独立的卫生间。两扇窗户和通道组成的专用隔离防护窗,用于药品和食品的传递。医院绝大部分房间都是负压房间(most of the rooms in the hospital are under negative pressure),房间内的压力比外面低,如同给病房带上“口罩”,避免病毒随着气流产生交叉感染。

——污染集中处理(all contaminated resources go through high-standard disinfection)。医院铺设了5万平方米的防渗膜,覆盖整个院区,确保污染物不会渗透到土壤水体中,同时医院安装了雨水、污水处理系统,经过两次氯气消毒处理,达标后才可排放。所有房间排风均经过消毒杀菌及高效过滤达标后,才高空排放。

A second special hospital for the treatment of the novel coronavirus — Leishenshan Hospital — is under construction in Wuhan. It is expected to be completed on Wednesday and start receiving patients the following day.
另一座新型冠状病毒治疗医院——雷神山医院也正在武汉施工建设,该医院有望在2月5日完工,并于次日开始接诊。

方舱医院 mobile cabin hospital

Wuhan will make use of the city's sports stadium and two convention centers, and renovate them into three mobile cabin hospitals to offer a total of 3,400 beds to treat novel coronavirus infected patients with mild symptoms.
武汉将把该市的一处体育馆和两个会展中心改建成三所“方舱医院”,以收治新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎轻症患者为主,将提供3400张医疗床位。

【知识点】

“方舱医院”(mobile cabin hospitals)是解放军野战机动医疗系统的一种(part of mobile field medical system of the PLA),在各种应急救治中也有广泛使用。“方舱医院”一般由医疗功能单元(medical treatment)、病房单元(ward)、技术保障单元(technical support)等部分构成,是一种模块化卫生装备,具有紧急救治(emergency treatment)、外科处置(surgical treatment)、临床检验(clinical tests)等多方面功能。

这三处“方舱医院”位于洪山体育馆(800张床位)、武汉客厅(2000张床位)、武汉国际会展中心(1000张床位)。

 

Medical staff will be dispatched to the three hospitals to take care of patients who test positive for the virus — but show no severe symptoms — as soon as they are completed. Once a patient's symptoms worsen, he or she will be transferred to Jinyintan Hospital, one of the city's designated hospitals to admit patients infected with the new virus, in a timely manner.
上述医院建成后将派医护人员前往,照顾感染了新型冠状病毒、但症状不严重的患者。一旦患者病情恶化,将及时被转入定点医院金银潭医院。

病死率 fatality rate

2月4日下午,国家卫生健康委举行新闻发布会,介绍了新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎重症患者的医疗救治情况。

The current case fatality rate (CFR) of the novel coronavirus infection on the Chinese mainland has dropped to 2.1 percent, Chinese health authorities said Tuesday.
国家卫健委表示,全国新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎患者病死率已降至2.1%。

The CFR remained stable after an initial 2.3 percent recorded at the beginning of the outbreak, said Jiao Yahui with the National Health Commission at a daily press briefing on the epidemic.
国家卫健委医政医管局副局长焦雅辉在发布会上表示,全国的病死率在疫情初期的时候是2.3%,目前基本上是稳定的。

【知识点】

病死率(case fatality rate,CFR)指一段时间内患有某个病症的所有患者中,因该病死亡人数所占的比例。病死率的计算方式就是,用该病患者死亡人数除以该病所有患者人数。

与之相关的还有一个概念就是,发病率(incidence rate),指特定人群在一定时间内发生某个病症新病例的频率。

The CFR in Hubei province was 3.1 percent, as the majority of the deaths occurred in the province, which saw a death toll of 414, over 97 percent of the total.
死亡患者主要集中在湖北省,累计414人,占全国97%,湖北省确诊病例的病死率为3.1%。

In Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei, the CFR stood at 4.9 percent and the death toll was 313, accounting for 74 percent of the national total.
武汉市的死亡人数是313人,占全国死亡的74%,武汉确诊病例病死率是4.9%。

2月4日下午,国家卫生健康委举行新闻发布会,介绍了新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎重症患者的医疗救治情况。

The current case fatality rate (CFR) of the novel coronavirus infection on the Chinese mainland has dropped to 2.1 percent, Chinese health authorities said Tuesday.
国家卫健委表示,全国新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎患者病死率已降至2.1%。

The CFR remained stable after an initial 2.3 percent recorded at the beginning of the outbreak, said Jiao Yahui with the National Health Commission at a daily press briefing on the epidemic.
国家卫健委医政医管局副局长焦雅辉在发布会上表示,全国的病死率在疫情初期的时候是2.3%,目前基本上是稳定的。

【知识点】

病死率(case fatality rate,CFR)指一段时间内患有某个病症的所有患者中,因该病死亡人数所占的比例。病死率的计算方式就是,用该病患者死亡人数除以该病所有患者人数。

与之相关的还有一个概念就是,发病率(incidence rate),指特定人群在一定时间内发生某个病症新病例的频率。

The CFR in Hubei province was 3.1 percent, as the majority of the deaths occurred in the province, which saw a death toll of 414, over 97 percent of the total.
死亡患者主要集中在湖北省,累计414人,占全国97%,湖北省确诊病例的病死率为3.1%。

In Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei, the CFR stood at 4.9 percent and the death toll was 313, accounting for 74 percent of the national total.
武汉市的死亡人数是313人,占全国死亡的74%,武汉确诊病例病死率是4.9%。

The fatality rate outside Hubei was only 0.16 percent.
如果除掉湖北省,其他省份的病死率是0.16%。

More than 80 percent of the deaths were elderly people over 60 years old, and over 75 percent had at least one underlying disease such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and tumors.
死亡患者以高龄为主,80%以上都是60岁以上的老年人,75%以上有一种以上的基础疾病,如心血管病、糖尿病以及肿瘤等。

中央一号文件 No. 1 central document

21世纪以来第17个指导“三农”工作的中央一号文件2月5日发布。

This year the document urged efforts on two main tasks -- winning the battle against poverty and strengthening areas of weakness concerning agriculture, rural areas and farmers, as the country strives to complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects this year.
文件指出,2020年是全面建成小康社会目标实现之年,有两个重点任务要完成:打赢脱贫攻坚战,补上三农”领域突出短板。

【知识点】

中央一号文件(No. 1 central document)指中共中央每年发布的第一份文件(the first policy statement released by central authorities each year)。中共中央在2004年至2020年连续十七年发布以“三农”(农业、农村、农民)为主题的中央一号文件,强调了“三农”问题(issues relating to agriculture, rural areas and farmers)在中国社会主义现代化时期“重中之重”的地位。

这份文件题为《中共中央 国务院关于抓好“三农”领域重点工作确保如期实现全面小康的意见》,全文共5个部分,包括:坚决打赢脱贫攻坚战(win the battle against poverty);对标全面建成小康社会加快补上农村基础设施和公共服务短板(improve infrastructure and public services in rural areas);保障重要农产品有效供给和促进农民持续增收(ensure supplies of important agricultural products, promote the increases in farmers' incomes);加强农村基层治理(strengthen grassroots governance in rural areas);强化农村补短板保障措施(improve rural weak links)。

具体要点如下:

China has made decisive achievements in poverty relief and vowed to fully realize poverty elimination targets this year. In doing so, the country will increase support for areas in deep poverty by adding poverty alleviation funds, the document said.
脱贫攻坚已经取得决定性成就,现在到了攻城拔寨、全面收官的阶段。各级财政要继续增加专项扶贫资金,中央财政新增部分主要用于深度贫困地区。

Efforts should also be made to provide institutional guarantees to prevent people from returning to poverty after being lifted out of it in a bid to consolidate poverty relief results.
为巩固脱贫成果提供制度保障,防止返贫。

The document noted that the country should keep the poverty alleviation policies on stable footing.
保持脱贫攻坚政策总体稳定。

China will see an immense change after it accomplishes its poverty elimination tasks, it said, urging that poverty reduction work should center more on addressing relative poverty and become normalized.
脱贫攻坚任务完成后,我国贫困状况将发生重大变化,扶贫工作重心转向解决相对贫困,扶贫工作方式由集中作战调整为常态推进。

The country should establish long-term mechanisms and strengthen the "top-level design" to tackle relative poverty while accelerating its pace to introduce the guideline, connecting poverty alleviation efforts with rural vitalization strategies.
要研究建立解决相对贫困的长效机制,加强解决相对贫困问题顶层设计,抓紧研究制定脱贫攻坚与实施乡村振兴战略有机衔接的意见。

Areas of weakness in rural work such as infrastructure and public services should be improved, while efforts should be made to ensure safe drinking water and strengthen rural environmental protection, said the document.
加快补上农村基础设施和公共服务短板,提高农村供水保障水平,扎实搞好农村人居环境整治。

Rural education will be further improved by strengthening the building of boarding schools in townships and increasing supplies of inclusive preschool education resources through multiple channels, it said.
加强乡镇寄宿制学校建设,多渠道增加普惠性学前教育资源供给。

The document also noted that the country will beef up efforts on improving medical and health services in rural areas.
加强农村基层医疗卫生服务。

As food security is a top priority, China will secure supplies of important agricultural products and maintain the stability of grain planting areas and output this year.
确保粮食安全始终是治国理政的头等大事。保障重要农产品有效供给,粮食播种面积和产量要保持基本稳定。

China will work to return hog production capacity to normal levels by the end of 2020, support the production of dairy and poultry products and guide the optimization of meat consumption structure, according to the document.
要采取综合性措施,确保2020年年底前生猪产能基本恢复到接近正常年份水平。支持奶业、禽类等生产,引导优化肉类消费结构。

The document called for the integrated industrial development in rural areas propelled by a whole industry chain based on local resources and advantages, along with industrial clusters with a competitive edge.
支持各地立足资源优势打造各具特色的农业全产业链,形成有竞争力的产业集群。

Agricultural structures should be optimized to feature more high-quality agricultural products and better certification of healthy food, organic produce and source of production, while e-commerce penetration in rural areas and oversight of food and produce should be enhanced.
继续调整优化农业结构,加强绿色食品、有机农产品、地理标志农产品认证和管理,扩大电子商务进农村覆盖面,建立健全农产品和食品追溯体系。

It also urged the stable employment of migrant workers among efforts to protect their wages.
稳定农民工就业。

Governance and the leadership of the Communist Party of China in rural communities should be strengthened, it said.
加强农村基层党组织治理和领导能力。

The document also vowed more investments into rural work, encouraging the issuance of local government special bonds to boost rural vitalization as well as monetary, fiscal and policy support for rural work.
加大中央和地方财政“三农”投入力度,各地应有序扩大用于支持乡村振兴的专项债券发行规模,强化对“三农”信贷的货币、财税、监管政策正向激励。

New agricultural entities such as qualified family farms are eligible to enjoy preferential credit and tax policies, it said.
符合条件的家庭农场等新型农业经营主体可按规定享受现行小微企业相关贷款税收减免政策。

The country will steadily expand pilot reforms of inclusive finance in rural areas and advance the listing of futures and options related to agricultural products.
稳妥扩大农村普惠金融改革试点,继续推进农产品期货期权品种上市。

Land for the development of rural industries should be guaranteed, it said.
保障乡村产业发展用地。

The document also stressed efforts to encourage rural migrant workers, college graduates, veterans and entrepreneurs to start businesses in rural areas and support the application of more technological achievements in rural areas.
畅通各类人才下乡渠道,支持大学生、退役军人、企业家等到农村干事创业。强化科技支撑作用。

The country vowed to step up breakthroughs in key agricultural core technologies and develop heavy smart agricultural machinery. Meanwhile, the building of agricultural innovation platforms such as science and technology centers should be strengthened.
加强农业关键核心技术攻关,加快大中型、智能化、复合型农业机械研发和应用。加强农业产业科技创新中心建设。

The document also stressed key reforms in rural area. The country will improve the basic rural operation system, advance reform of the rural land system and make specific policies on extending the current round of rural land contracts for another 30 years upon expiration based on trials.
抓好农村重点改革任务。完善农村基本经营制度,开展第二轮土地承包到期后再延长30年试点,在试点基础上研究制定延包的具体办法。

China will press ahead with pilot reforms of the rural collective property rights system nationwide, the document said.
全面推开农村集体产权制度改革试点。

The document urged the deepening of reform in agricultural administration to perfect the law enforcement system and improve law enforcement capabilities.
深化农业综合行政执法改革,完善执法体系,提高执法能力。

Policies should fit local conditions and farmers' wishes, the document noted, stressing that officials should avoid formalism and bureaucracy in policy implementation.
坚持从农村实际出发,因地制宜,尊重农民意愿,力戒形式主义、官僚主义。

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