2020年1月新闻热词汇总

2020.02.01

2020年1月,一年一度的春运大幕开启,中美签署第一阶段经贸协议,习近平主席出访缅甸,续写千年胞波情谊的崭新篇章,教育部推出“强基计划”,长江流域分阶段禁渔开始实施,武汉等城市出现新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎,美国取消对中国“汇率操纵国”的认定,国务院发布新版限塑令。

只争朝夕,不负韶华 seize the day and live it to the fullest

President Xi Jinping on Tuesday delivered a New Year speech in Beijing to ring in 2020, pledging to achieve the first centenary goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects in the "milestone" year.
新年前夕,国家主席习近平发表了2020年新年贺词。贺词指出,2020年是具有里程碑意义的一年。我们将全面建成小康社会,实现第一个百年奋斗目标。

【重要讲话】
2020年也是脱贫攻坚决战决胜之年。冲锋号已经吹响。我们要万众一心加油干,越是艰险越向前,把短板补得再扎实一些,把基础打得再牢靠一些,坚决打赢脱贫攻坚战,如期实现现行标准下农村贫困人口全部脱贫、贫困县全部摘帽。
2020 will also be a year of decisive victory for the elimination of poverty. The bugle has sounded. United as one, we shall work harder. The greater the difficulties are, the further we advance, strengthening our weak links even more and laying a more solid foundation to win the hard battle against poverty with determination, to lift all impoverished rural residents and counties out of poverty by current standards as scheduled.
——2019年12月31日,习近平发表2020年新年贺词

让我们只争朝夕,不负韶华,共同迎接2020年的到来。
Let's seize the day and live it to the fullest, and greet the arrival of the year 2020 together.
——2019年12月31日,习近平发表2020年新年贺词

长江禁渔 fishing ban in the Yangtze River basin

Starting from this year, the fishing ban will be observed in 332 conservation areas in the Yangtze River basin, which will also be expanded to all natural waterways of the river and its major tributaries from no later than Jan 1, 2021.
2020年起,长江流域332个保护区全面禁止生产性捕捞;最迟自2021年1月1日零时起,禁渔范围将扩大至所有长江干流和重要支流天然水域。

【知识点】

在水文学上,支流(tributary)指汇入另一条河流(或其他水体)而不直接入海的河流。支流所汇入的河流称为干流或主流(mainstream),两河或多河交汇之处称为合流或合流处(confluence)。与支流相反的情况称为分流(distributary)。

长江干流(the Yangtze River mainstream)是指青海省曲麻莱县以下至长江河口的长江干流江段;重要支流(major tributaries)是指岷江、沱江、赤水河、嘉陵江、乌江、汉江等重要通江河流在甘肃、陕西、云南、贵州、四川、重庆、湖北境内的干流江段,大渡河在青海和四川境内的干流河段,以及各省份确定的其他重要支流。

Fishing will also be prohibited on natural waterways of large lakes connected to the Yangtze such as the Dongting Lake and Poyang Lake for 10 years starting from no later than Jan 1, 2021.
对鄱阳湖、洞庭湖等大型通江湖泊天然水域,最迟自2021年1月1日零时起实行暂定为期10年的常年禁捕。

禁捕是有效缓解长江生物资源衰退和生物多样性下降危机的关键之举。

The Yangtze River has long been suffering from human activities such as overfishing, pollution and damming.
长江长期以来受拦河筑坝、水域污染、过度捕捞等人类活动的影响。

Biological deterioration has reduced fishing activities along the Yangtze as well, which now only produces 0.32 percent of China's total freshwater aquatic products. In recent years, annual catch from the Yangtze has fallen to less than 100,000 tonnes from more than 420,000 tonnes in the 1950s.
生态破坏也使得渔业生产受到严重影响。20世纪50年代,年长江流域天然捕捞量超过42万吨,近年来长江每年的捕捞量也不足10万吨,约占全国淡水水产品总量的0.32%。

多方合力保障28万渔民生计

The 10-year ban is estimated to affect more than 113,000 fishing boats and nearly 280,000 fishermen in 10 provincial regions along the river. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs has promised to provide social security services, financial support and vocational trainings for fishermen who have to find new ways of living.
根据测算,长江流域重点水域禁捕共涉及沿江10个省市的合法持证渔船11.3万多艘、渔民近28万人。农业农村部承诺统筹协调落实退捕渔民过渡期生活补助、社会保障、职业技能培训等政策。

禁捕后仍要做大量工作以确保生态修复

Efforts will also be made to protect rare species and enhance monitoring over aquatic life in the Yangtze, and to improve protection and management strategies in accordance with biological resource restoration progress.
针对珍稀物种采取保护措施;构建长江水生生物调查监测平台;根据渔业资源恢复情况,改进保护管理政策。

校园贷 campus loans

College students who fall into debt as a result of using peer-to-peer lending platforms cannot be included in a list of dishonest debtors, China's top court said on Thursday.
最高法1月2日表示,在校大学生因为使用网贷平台而欠债的不应被列为失信被执行人。

 

【知识点】

校园贷(campus loans)始于2014年,到2015年迎来爆发式增长,但因随后爆发的“裸贷(loans secured against nude photos)、收费混乱(illegal charges)、暴力催收(forcible debt collection)”等负面事件备受舆论质疑。2017年,银监会、教育部、人社部、互联网金融委员会等发布通知,禁止违规机构向大学生提供校园贷服务。

失信被执行人(defaulter),是指被执行人具有履行能力而不履行生效法律文书确定的义务,俗称“老赖”。最高人民法院先后于2013年建立了网上的“老赖”黑名单系统(online blacklist of defaulters)。

The blacklist publishes personal details, including names and identity card numbers, of individuals and legal representatives of companies who refused to comply with court orders to shame them into compliance.
该黑名单对失信被执行人(个人及公司法人)的姓名、身份证号等信息进行公示,希望以此方式使他们执行法院判决。

2014年底,最高法正式开通“总对总”网络查控系统(information monitoring network),与银行以及公安部、交通部、工商总局、人民银行等单位实现联网,可以查询到被执行人全国范围内的存款、车辆、证券、网络资金等14类16项信息,并对被执行人进行消费限制。

此次最高法发布的意见明确,全日制在校生因“校园贷”纠纷成为被执行人的,一般不得对其采取纳入失信名单或限制消费措施。

北京京师律师事务所的律师许浩表示,

Some students are still shouldering an economic and credit burden in debt disputes, even though our country prohibited online platforms from lending money to students three years ago. Students, as the debtors, still need to repay the debts in line with court rulings and valid contracts.
虽然我们国家3年前就禁止网贷平台提供校园贷了,但是部分学生依然承担着债务纠纷导致的经济和信用负担。学生作为债务人仍然需要按照法庭判决和有效合同偿还债务。

Given that many students have little savings and the borrowing records will influence their future, such as in employment, further studies, or bank loans, the top court's decision on removing them from the dishonest list, I think, is timely, humane and necessary.
鉴于学生没有什么储蓄,而这种借款记录可能会对他们未来的就业、深造以及银行贷款申请产生影响,最高法决定不将学生列入失信名单的决定很及时,人性化,也很必要。

最高法还规定了几类解除或暂时解除限制消费措施的情形。

The guideline permits courts to temporarily lift travel restrictions when defaulters have to take a train or fly home for medical treatment or when family members fall ill or die.
对被限制消费的个人,因其本人患病或近亲属患病或死亡等情形,人民法院应当暂时解除限制其乘坐飞机、高铁措施。

地区生产总值统一核算 unified regional calculation of gross domestic product

China will introduce unified regional calculation of gross domestic product (GDP) to enhance the accuracy of the results, the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) said Sunday.
国家统计局1月5日表示,我国将实施地区生产总值统一核算,以提升核算结果的精确性。

The new accounting system will take effect while calculating the annual regional GDP of 2019, said Ning Jizhe, head of the NBS.
国家统计局局长宁吉喆说,统一核算改革将从2019年年度地区生产总值核算开始。

【知识点】

国内生产总值(Gross Domestic Product,简称GDP)是指在一定时期内(一个季度或一年),一个国家或地区的经济中所生产出的全部最终产品和劳务的价值(the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a specific time period),常被公认为衡量国家经济状况的最佳指标。

自1985年我国建立生产总值核算制度以来,一直采取分级核算制度(separate accounting system),即国家统计局核算国内生产总值(overall GDP calculation),各省区市统计局核算本地区生产总值。

改革后,地区生产总值将由各省区市统计局负责核算改革为国家统计局统一组织、领导和实施(lead the unified accounting of regional GDP by conducting unified accounting procedures),各省区市统计局共同参与核算。改革后,各地区生产总值数据将由国家统计局统一部署公布或授权各地区统计局公布本地区数据。

拖欠工资 wage arrears

国务院总理李克强日前签署国务院令,公布《保障农民工工资支付条例》(以下简称《条例》),自2020年5月1日起施行。

 

To ensure that rural migrant workers get their wages on time and in full, the regulation has clauses on clarifying the responsibilities of employers and related government departments, detailing rules for special areas and strengthening supervision.
为了保障农民工按时足额获得工资,《条例》从明确用人单位以及相关政府部门的职责,细化重点领域治理措施,以及强化监管手段等方面做出了明确规定。

【词汇讲解】

“拖欠工资”可以用名词短语wage arrears表示,arrear读作[ə'rɪə],表示“欠款”,比如,某人已经欠了6个月的房租就可以说:someone is six weeks in arrear with his rent. 此外,“欠薪”还可以用动词短语withhold salary或者delay salary来表示。发工资的时候,有些单位还会出现无理克扣工资(unreasonable deductions from paychecks)的现象,更不用说保证发放加班费(overtime pay)了。

“讨薪”可以用demand unpaid salary来表示,如果讨薪成功,单位“补发工资”就可以用pay backdated salary表示。这里的backdated就是表示某个政策或举措从之前较早的时间开始计算。比如,6月份发出涨工资的决定,但是从1月开始算的,所以会从1月开始补发。这种情况就可以说:The increase in pay agreed in June will be backdated to January.

The regulation said wages for rural migrant workers should be paid with bank transfers or cash, not in other forms such as physical goods or securities.
《条例》明确以银行转账或者现金形式支付农民工工资,不得以实物或者有价证券等其他形式替代。

Government-funded projects must be given sufficient funding and should not be funded in advance by contractors, and government officials in regions with serious wage arrears will be punished.
《条例》规定政府投资项目所需资金必须落实到位,不得由施工单位垫资建设,对拖欠农民工工资的地方部门负责人,情节严重的给予处分。

The regulation also ordered government departments to beef up regulation, including setting up credit archives for employers and formulating a unified punishment system for those who default on migrant workers' wages.
《条例》要求政府部门强化监管,建立用人单位劳动保障守法诚信档案和拖欠农民工工资失信联合惩戒制度。

 

党的先进性和纯洁性 the Party's advanced nature and purity

Xi Jinping, general secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee, on Wednesday called for continued efforts to ensure that the whole Party remains true to its original aspiration and keeps its mission firmly in mind. Xi, also Chinese president and chairman of the Central Military Commission, made the remarks at a meeting summarizing a campaign themed "staying true to our founding mission."
“不忘初心、牢记使命”主题教育总结大会1月8日召开。中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平出席会议并发表重要讲话。习近平强调,要持续推动全党不忘初心牢记使命。

"We must resolutely remove whatever weakens the Party's advanced nature and undermines the Party's purity, and rid ourselves of any tumor that erodes the Party's health," said Xi, adding that the Party should resolutely guard against all dangers of running counter to the original aspiration and the mission or shaking the foundation of the Party.
他强调,坚决清除一切弱化党的先进性、损害党的纯洁性的因素,坚决割除一切滋生在党的肌体上的毒瘤,坚决防范一切违背初心和使命、动摇党的根基的危险。

 

【重要讲话】
要始终保持奋发有为的进取精神,永葆党的先进性和纯洁性,答好新时代的答卷。
The CPC members should always maintain the enterprising spirit, ensure the Party's purity and advanced nature, and pass the test of the new era.
——2019年9月12日,习近平视察中共中央北京香山革命纪念地时表示

全党要更加自觉地坚定党性原则,勇于直面问题,敢于刮骨疗毒,消除一切损害党的先进性和纯洁性的因素,清除一切侵蚀党的健康肌体的病毒,不断增强党的政治领导力、思想引领力、群众组织力、社会号召力,确保我们党永葆旺盛生命力和强大战斗力。
Every Party member must be more actively involved in enhancing Party consciousness, and demonstrate commitment to Party principles. We must have the courage to face problems squarely, be braced for the pain, act to remove whatever undermines the Party’s purity and advanced nature, and rid ourselves of any virus that erodes the Party’s health. We must keep on strengthening the Party’s ability to lead politically, to guide through theory, to organize the people, and to inspire society, thus ensuring that the Party’s great vitality and strong ability are forever maintained.
——2017年10月18日,习近平在中国共产党第十九次全国代表大会上的报告

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