中美夹缝中的欧洲:华为禁令影响有多大? Huawei’s European Customers Are Put […]

Huawei’s European Customers Are Put on Hold by U.S. Ban

LONDON — Europe has been one of Huawei’s biggest success stories. Now it is on the front line of the trade and technology war between China and the United States.
The move by Google this week to cut off Android support to phones made by Huawei, the Chinese telecom giant, will hobble their European users and highlights how deeply the Continent relies on American and Chinese companies for gadgets, apps and internet services.
From its early days selling equipment to wireless carriers, Huawei has expanded at an extraordinary rate in Europe, capturing more than a quarter of the smartphone market. Google’s action is “potentially catastrophic” for Huawei’s hopes in Europe, said Ben Stanton, a senior analyst at Canalys, a research firm.
从早期销售设备给无线运营商开始,华为一直以非比寻常的速度在欧洲扩张,占据了超过四分之一的智能手机市场。谷歌的举动,对华为在欧洲的前景“可能造成灾难性影响”,研究公司Canalys高级分析师本·斯坦顿(Ben Stanton)说。
The Trump administration’s order this month barring American telecommunications firms from using foreign-made equipment that could pose a threat to national security — exactly what Washington has accused Huawei of doing — is likely to have a knock-on effect on smartphone users’ experience. Google Maps and other apps, for example, will not be supported.

European customers will be hit harder than those in the United States or China. Huawei phones are largely unavailable in the United States, and Google’s services have long been blocked in China by the government.
But they are best sellers in countries like Greece, Portugal and Spain. Those phones, plus robust sales of telecommunications equipment, have made the market covering Europe, the Middle East and Africa into Huawei’s second biggest after China. It accounted for 28 percent of Huawei’s revenue in 2018, compared with 7 percent from the Americas.
The pressure has mounted. Since the administration’s order, one company after another has moved to suspend business with the company, which is the world’s second-largest smartphone maker, after Samsung.
Google announced its pullback on Monday. The Commerce Department said it would grant a 90-day extension for companies to work out how to support existing cellular networks and handsets, but Google said it planned to abide by the ruling once the time expired.
On Wednesday, two British carriers, EE and Vodafone, said they would not offer Huawei phones to customers who wanted access to their new 5G services. Two of Japan’s largest mobile carriers also said they would delay the debut of a new smartphone by Huawei.
伦敦EE店的华为手机。EE和沃达丰上周表示,将不再向想要获取新5G服务的客户提供华为手机。 SUZIE HOWELL FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES
Huawei will be unable to recover quickly, analysts said.
“It would be extremely unlikely that they would use their own operating system here in the short term,” said Dario Talmesio, a telecommunications analyst at Ovum, a research and consultancy firm in London. “And that means people with existing Huawei devices will gradually see devices that are reliant on Android deteriorate because they are not able to perform certain upgrades.”
“他们要在这里使用自己的操作系统,短期内可能性极小,”伦敦研究与咨询公司欧文(Ovum)电信分析师达里奥·塔尔梅西奥(Dario Talmesio)说。“而这意味着现有华为设备用户将看到,依赖安卓的设备会越来越糟,因为它们无法进行某些更新。”

Customers shopping for a handset are unlikely to buy one that doesn’t come with Google’s latest version of Android, apps like Gmail or the Play app store. The drop in demand for Huawei phones could also hurt European carriers that are “very heavily relying on the quality, with fairly low cost, of Chinese devices” to get customers onto the new hyperfast networks that are on the horizon, Mr. Talmesio said.
Huawei’s bottom line could suffer from the loss of sales of its more expensive phones, with their high profit margins, said Steve Tsang, the director of the China Institute at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London. And the diminished prospects in Europe may hinder Huawei’s ability to expand elsewhere.
利润空间较大的高价系列手机的销量损失,可能会影响华为的盈利,伦敦大学亚非学院(School of Oriental and African Studies)中国研究所主任曾锐生(Steve Tsang)说。在欧洲的前景黯淡,还可能会妨碍华为在其他地方的扩张能力。
“Being able to make it in Europe means that it is a lot easier for Huawei to make it in the rest of the world,” Mr. Tsang said. “Success in Europe is significant for Huawei, both in terms of revenue and in terms of future growth.”
To succeed in Europe, Huawei made a sustained effort over nearly two decades to work with network operators and allow governments to test its equipment for security flaws. Huawei first made inroads by providing cheap gear to build phone networks in countries including Britain, Germany, France and Poland. The company became the world’s largest seller of telecom equipment, besting Nokia and Ericsson.
Huawei deepened its reach when it began selling mobile devices, first as low-cost alternatives to a Samsung Galaxy or an Apple iPhone and then with pricier models respected for their technology. Huawei gives carriers and retailers better financial terms than rivals by allowing them to make money from every handset sale. Industry analysts said retailers had an incentive to display and promote Huawei phones.
开始销售手机设备后,华为加深了市场影响,它一开始是定位为三星盖乐世(Samsung Galaxy)或苹果iPhone的廉价替代选择,而后又推出在技术上赢得了尊重的高价机型。华为向运营商和零售商开出了比竞争对手更优惠的条件,使它们能从售出的每一款手机中获利。行业分析人士称,零售商有展示和推销华为手机的动力。
The strategy helped Huawei sell more than 42 million smartphones in Europe last year, according to Canalys. “Huawei has been the darling of the European smartphone industry for the last three or four years," Mr. Stanton of Canalys said.

Huawei's growth highlights how Europe's influence in tech has faded.
European policymakers have been trying to nurture the region’s technology sector, which played an important role in the growth of the global tech industry. Finland’s Nokia was once the world’s largest seller of mobile phones, and Skype, founded by Scandinavians, helped pioneer the now-common ability to make calls over the internet. But Europe could not keep up with Silicon Valley or Shenzhen, where Huawei has its headquarters.
For months, Washington has been warning allies of security risks associated with Huawei, but several countries balked at its assessment. The Trump administration has threatened America’s intelligence-sharing relationship with Germany, Britain and other allies as Huawei sought to build their fifth-generation, or 5G, networks. The networks promise not only faster cellular service but also better wireless connections for “internet of things” devices like autonomous cars, security cameras and industrial equipment.
布鲁塞尔的华为服务中心。“现在华为对我而言已经退出市场了,”某布鲁塞尔手机商店内的一名顾客说。 MASHID MOHADJERIN FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES
The Trump administration’s order moved the debate about Huawei beyond the more obscure equipment needed to make wireless networks to which handsets consumers can buy and apps they can use.
“It’s not in our control,” said Mr. Talmesio at Ovum. “We are stuck in the middle of this commercial war, and we are becoming very much a kind of proxy war territory.”
Google’s decision surprised potential phone buyers in Europe, and many were hesitating. Security risks were not their worry. They wanted to know that their phones would work anywhere.
“Such applications as YouTube and Google Maps, they are vital,” said George Kirmizidis, a civil servant browsing at a BASE mobile phone shop in Brussels. “If I cannot access those through my smartphone, what’s the point of buying a smartphone altogether?”
“像YouTube和谷歌地图这类应用很关键,”公务员乔治·科米兹迪斯(George Kirmizidis)一边逛着一家布鲁塞尔BASE手机商店,一边说。“要是我没法在智能手机上使用这些应用,干嘛还要买智能手机?”
“As a customer, of course I would like to have the choice to choose between different products, and now Huawei is out of the market for me,” Mr. Kirmizidis, 44, added. “I have a limited choice of products, which is not fair if we support capitalism.”
Solongo Unurbat was examining a Huawei phone priced at more than $1,000 in the Mall of Berlin, and the 34-year-old was not concerned about the loss of Google functionality.
索隆戈·奴尔巴特(Solongo Unurbat)在柏林购物中心(Mall of Berlin)查看一部售价超过1000美元的华为手机,34岁的她不担心失去谷歌功能。
“For me, it’s all about the camera, ” she said.

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