硅谷想重塑美国教育,却遭遇了反叛

WELLINGTON, Kan. — The seed of rebellion was planted in […]

WELLINGTON, Kan. — The seed of rebellion was planted in classrooms. It grew in kitchens and living rooms, in conversations between students and their parents.

堪萨斯州威灵顿——反叛的种子在教室播下,在学生与父母的厨房和客厅对话中生长。

It culminated when Collin Winter, 14, an eighth grader in McPherson, Kan., joined a classroom walkout in January. In the nearby town of Wellington, high schoolers staged a sit-in. Their parents organized in living rooms, at churches and in the back of machine repair shops. They showed up en masse to school board meetings. In neighborhoods with no political yard signs, homemade signs with dark red slash marks suddenly popped up.

当堪萨斯州麦克弗森市一名14岁的八年级学生科林·温特(Collin Winter)一月加入一场罢课运动时,它达到了顶峰。在这个威灵顿附近的小镇,高中生举行了静坐示威。他们的父母在客厅、教堂和机修行的里屋组织起来,集体出席了学校的董事会。这一带的民居院子里看不到政治标语,现在却突然开始出现画着深红色斜线的手制标语。

Silicon Valley had come to small-town Kansas schools — and it was not going well.

硅谷来到了堪萨斯的小镇学校——但进展并不顺利。

“I want to just take my Chromebook back and tell them I’m not doing it anymore,” said Kallee Forslund, 16, a 10th grader in Wellington.

“我只想把我的Chromebook拿回来,然后告诉他们我再也不干了,”16岁的凯莉·福斯隆德(Kallee Forslund)说。她是威灵顿一名十年级的学生。

Eight months earlier, public schools near Wichita had rolled out a web-based platform and curriculum from Summit Learning. The Silicon Valley-based program promotes an educational approach called “personalized learning,” which uses online tools to customize education. The platform that Summit provides was developed by Facebook engineers. It is funded by Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook’s chief executive, and his wife, Priscilla Chan, a pediatrician.

八个月前,威奇托附近的公立学校推出了来自“巅峰学习”(Summit Learning)的一个基于网络的平台和课程计划。这个总部在硅谷的项目推广一种名为“个性化学习”的教育方法,用在线工具来定制教育。巅峰提供的这个平台由Facebook的工程师开发,其资金来自马克·扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)和他的妻子、儿科医生普莉希拉·陈(Priscilla Chan)。

Many families in the Kansas towns, which have grappled with underfunded public schools and deteriorating test scores, initially embraced the change. Under Summit’s program, students spend much of the day on their laptops and go online for lesson plans and quizzes, which they complete at their own pace. Teachers assist students with the work, hold mentoring sessions and lead special projects. The system is free to schools. The laptops are typically bought separately.

堪萨斯小镇的许多家庭最初接受了这一改变,他们一直受到资金不足的公立学校和不断恶化的考试成绩的困扰。在巅峰项目中,学生们大部分时间都会花在笔记本电脑上,在线参加课程计划和测验,并按照自己的节奏完成。老师们只对学生起协助作用,开展辅导活动并指导专项课题。这个系统对学校免费。但笔记本电脑通常需要另行购买。

Then, students started coming home with headaches and hand cramps. Some said they felt more anxious. One child began having a recurrence of seizures. Another asked to bring her dad’s hunting earmuffs to class to block out classmates because work was now done largely alone.

然后,一些学生开始出现头疼和手部痉挛的问题。一些人说他们感到更加焦虑了。有个小孩出现反复的癫痫发作,还有一个则要求带她爸爸打猎用的耳罩来上课,这样就可以屏蔽同学的声音,因为现在大部分功课都是独自完成的。

“We’re allowing the computers to teach and the kids all looked like zombies,” said Tyson Koenig, a factory supervisor in McPherson, who visited his son’s fourth-grade class. In October, he pulled the 10-year-old out of the school.

“我们在让电脑来教课,孩子们全都跟僵尸一样,”麦克弗森一家工厂的主管泰森·科尼格(Tyson Koenig)说。他去看了儿子的四年级课堂情况。去年十月,他带着自己10岁的小孩离开了学校。

In a school district survey of McPherson middle school parents released this month, 77 percent of respondents said they preferred their child not be in a classroom that uses Summit. More than 80 percent said their children had expressed concerns about the platform.

在本月公布的一项针对麦克弗森中学生家长的学区调查中,77%的受访者表示,他们更希望自己的孩子不在使用巅峰的班级中。超过80%的人称,他们的孩子对这个平台表示了担忧。

“Change rarely comes without some bumps in the road,” said Gordon Mohn, McPherson’s superintendent of schools. He added, “Students are becoming self-directed learners and are demonstrating greater ownership of their learning activities.”

“改变很少是不碰几个钉子的,”麦克弗森的教育局长戈登·莫恩(Gordon Mohn)说。他补充道,“学生们正在成为自主学习者,并对自己的学习活动展示出更大的自主权。”

John Buckendorf, Wellington High School’s principal, said the “vast majority of our parents are happy with the program.”

威灵顿中学的校长约翰·邦肯多夫(John Buckendorf)表示,“我们绝大多数的家长对这个项目感到满意。”

The resistance in Kansas is part of mounting nationwide opposition to Summit, which began trials of its system in public schools four years ago and is now in around 380 schools and used by 74,000 students. In Brooklyn, high school students walked out in November after their school started using Summit’s platform. In Indiana, Pa., after a survey by Indiana University of Pennsylvania found 70 percent of students wanted Summit dropped or made optional, the school board scaled it back and then voted this month to terminate it. And in Cheshire, Conn., the program was cut after protests in 2017.

全国范围内有越来越多的人反对巅峰,堪萨斯州的抵制只是其中之一。巅峰于四年前开始在公立学校试用其系统,目前被大约380所学校使用,涉及7.4万名学生。去年11月,一些布鲁克林的高中使用巅峰平台后,学生们举行了罢课。在宾夕法尼亚的印第安纳,宾夕法尼亚印第安纳大学(Indiana University of Pennsylvania)一项调查发现,70%的学生希望取消巅峰,或让其成为可选项目,随后学校董事会缩减了其规模,并于本月投票决定是否终止该项目。在康涅狄格州的柴郡,该项目在2017年遭抗议后被撤销。

“When there are frustrating situations, generally kids get over them, parents get over them, and they all move on,” said Mary Burnham, who has two grandchildren in Cheshire’s school district and started a petition to end Summit’s use. “Nobody got over this.”

“出现令人困扰的情况时,孩子们通常会适应,父母也会适应,然后他们就不再纠结了,”有两个孙辈在柴郡学校就读的玛丽·伯纳姆(Mary Burnham)说,她发起了一项中止使用巅峰的请愿。“但是没有人适应这个。”

Silicon Valley has tried to remake American education in its own image for years, even as many in tech eschew gadgets and software at home and flood into tech-free schools. Summit has been part of the leading edge of the movement, but the rebellion raises questions about a heavy reliance on tech in public schools.

尽管许多科技界人士不愿在家里使用电子产品和软件,并且竞相把孩子送进不允许使用科技产品的学校,但硅谷多年来一直试图按照自己的构想重塑美国教育。巅峰一直是该运动的前沿阵地之一,但这次反抗引发了人们对公立学校严重依赖科技的质疑。

For years, education experts have debated the merits of self-directed, online learning versus traditional teacher-led classrooms. Proponents argue that programs like Summit provide children, especially those in underserved towns, access to high-quality curriculums and teachers. Skeptics worry about screen time and argue that students miss out on important interpersonal lessons.

多年来,教育专家一直在争论自主在线学习和传统教师主导课堂孰优孰劣。支持者认为,巅峰这样的项目为孩子们提供了高质量的课程和教师,尤其是在那些服务不完备的城镇。持怀疑态度的人担心观看屏幕的时间太长,认为会让学生错过重要的人际交往课程。

John Pane, a senior scientist at the RAND Corporation who has studied programs that use digital tools to customize learning, said the field remains in its infancy. “There has not been enough research,” he said.

兰德公司(RAND Corporation)的资深科学家约翰·潘(John Pane)研究过使用数字工具定制学习的项目。他说,这个领域仍处于起步阶段。“没有足够的研究,”他说。

Diane Tavenner, a former teacher and Summit’s chief executive, founded a series of public charter schools starting in 2003 called Summit Public Schools and began developing software to use in the classrooms so that students could “unlock the power within themselves.” The resulting program, Summit Learning, is spinning out into a new nonprofit called T.L.P. Education. Ms. Tavenner said the Kansas protests were largely about nostalgia.

巅峰的首席执行官黛安·塔文纳(Diane Tavenner)曾是一名教师,她在2003年创办了一系列名为“巅峰公立学校”的公立特许学校,并开发用于课堂的软件,让学生“释放自己内心的力量”。由此产生的“巅峰学习”项目正逐渐发展成为一个名为“TLP教育”的非营利新组织。塔文纳说,堪萨斯的抗议主要是因为守旧。

“There’s people who don’t want change. They like the schools the way they are,” she said. “The same people who don’t like Summit have been the sort of vocal opposition to change throughout the process.”

“有些人不想改变。他们喜欢现在这样的学校,”她说。“不喜欢巅峰的人也是那种在整个过程中一直高声反对变化的人。”

Summit chose not to be part of a study after paying the Harvard Center for Education Policy Research to design one in 2016. Tom Kane, the Harvard professor preparing that assessment, said he was wary of speaking out against Summit because many education projects receive funding from Mr. Zuckerberg and Dr. Chan’s philanthropic organization, the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative.

2016年,巅峰花钱请哈佛大学教育政策研究中心(Harvard Center for Education Policy Research)设计一项研究,之后又决定不参与它。筹备这项评估的哈佛大学教授汤姆·凯恩(Tom Kane)说,他不太情愿公开反对巅峰,因为很多教育项目都是由扎克伯格和陈的慈善组织“陈-扎克伯格行动”(Chan Zuckerberg Initiative)资助的。

Mr. Zuckerberg backed Summit in 2014 and assigned five Facebook engineers to develop the software. In 2015, he wrote that Summit’s program would help “meet the student’s individual needs and interests” and that technology “frees up time for teachers to do what they do best — mentor students.” Since 2016, the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative has committed $99.1 million in grants to Summit.

扎克伯格在2014年支持了巅峰,并指派五名Facebook工程师来开发该软件。2015年,他写道,巅峰的项目有助于“满足学生的个人需求和兴趣”,而且技术“为教师腾出时间,让他们可以做自己最擅长的事情——辅导学生”。自2016年以来,“陈-扎克伯格行动”已承诺向巅峰提供9910万美元的资助。

In a statement, Abby Lunardini, the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative’s chief communications officer, said, “We take the issues raised very seriously, and Summit has been working with school leaders and parents on the ground to address them.” She added that many schools that used Summit “love and support the program.”

在一份声明中,陈-扎克伯格行动的首席传讯官艾比·卢纳尔迪尼(Abby Lunardini)说:“我们非常重视所提出的问题,巅峰已经与学校领导和当地家长合作来解决这些问题。”她还说,许多使用巅峰的学校“喜欢并支持这个项目”。

Few places better illustrate the reaction to Summit than the central Kansas towns of Wellington (population 8,000) and McPherson (population 13,000). The towns are surrounded by wheat fields and factories. Residents work in farming, at a nearby oil refinery or at aircraft parts manufacturing plants.

堪萨斯州中部的威灵顿(8000人口)和麦克弗森(13000人口)最能说明人们对巅峰的反应。这些城镇四面环绕着麦田和工厂。居民在农场、附近的炼油厂或飞机零部件制造厂工作。

In 2015, Kansas announced that it would support education “moon shots” like “personalized learning.” Two years later, it picked school district “astronauts,” including McPherson and Wellington. When parents received brochures promising “personalized learning,” many were thrilled. The school districts’ leaders selected Summit.

2015年,堪萨斯州宣布在教育系统中支持“个性化学习”等“登月工程”般的超前项目。两年后,它选择了学区中的“宇航员”,麦克弗森和威灵顿也在其中。当家长们收到承诺“个性化学习”的宣传小册子时,许多人兴奋不已。校区主管选择了巅峰。

“We wanted to get every kid on an even playing field,” said Brian Kynaston, a dentist in McPherson and school board member, adding that it helped that Summit was free.

“我们想让每个孩子都拥有公平的竞争环境,”麦克弗森牙医、校董布赖恩·基纳斯顿(Brian Kynaston)说。

He said he liked Summit’s program. His daughter, Kelcie, 14, said she felt self-directed. “Everyone is judging it too quickly,” he said.

他说他喜欢巅峰的课程。他14岁的女儿凯尔西(Kelcie)说,她感受到了自主性。“大家都太急于去下结论,”他说。

Mr. Koenig, the factory supervisor, said: “You want your kids to be innovators. You want them to be on the cutting edge of what’s next.”

工厂主管科尼格说:“你会希望你的孩子成为创新者。你希望他们站在未来的最前沿。”

[If you are a parent, teacher or administrator who has experience with the Summit learning platform and want to discuss it, reach us confidentially herehere.]

(如果您是一位家长、老师或管理者,有使用巅峰学习平台的经验,并希望与我们进行讨论,点击这里与我们联系。)

When this school year started, children got laptops to use Summit software and curriculums. In class, they sat at the computers working through subjects from math to English to history. Teachers told students that their role was now to be a mentor.

新学年开始时,孩子们领到使用巅峰软件和课程的笔记本电脑。在课堂上,他们坐在电脑前面学习数学、英语、历史等科目。老师告诉学生们,他们现在的角色是辅导者。

Parents of special-needs students noticed problems immediately. Amy Jackson, a night-shift nurse in Wellington, has a daughter, Megan, 12, who has epilepsy and whose neurologist recommended she limit screen time to 30 minutes a day to reduce seizures. Since the school started using Summit, Megan has had seizures multiple times a day.

有特殊需要的学生的家长立即注意到了问题。威灵顿的夜班护士艾米·杰克逊(Amy Jackson)的女儿,12岁的梅根(Megan)患有癫痫,神经科医生建议她把每天看屏幕的时间限制在30分钟以内,以减少癫痫发作。自从学校开始使用巅峰以来,梅根的癫痫每天都会发作好几次。

In September, some students stumbled onto questionable content while working in the Summit platform, which often directs them to click on links to the open web.

巅峰通常会引导学生点击指向开放网络的链接,今年9月,一些学生在该平台学习时偶然发现了有问题的内容。

In one class covering Paleolithic history, Summit included a link to an article in The Daily Mail, the British newspaper, that showed racy ads with bikini-clad women. For a list of the Ten Commandments, two parents said their children were directed to a Christian conversion site.

在一节关于旧石器时代历史的课程中,巅峰提供了英国《每日邮报》(Daily Mail)上一篇文章的链接,其中展示了穿着比基尼的女人的色情广告。两位家长说,为了查十诫,他们的孩子被引向一个基督教皈依网站。

Ms. Tavenner said building a curriculum from the open internet meant that a Daily Mail article was fair game for lesson plans. “The Daily Mail is written at a very low reading level,” she said, later adding that it was a bad link to include. She added that as far as she was aware, Summit’s curriculum did not send students to a Christian conversion site.

塔文纳说,通过开放的互联网构建课程,这意味着《每日邮报》的文章也是课程计划的可选对象。“《每日邮报》的文章对阅读水平要求不高,”她说。她还说,据她所知巅峰的课程并不会把学生导向基督教皈依网站。

Around the country, teachers said they were split on Summit. Some said it freed them from making lesson plans and grading quizzes so they had more time for individual students. Others said it left them as bystanders. Some parents said they worried about their children’s data privacy.

全国各地的教师对巅峰的意见不一。一些人说,这让他们从制定课程计划和批改试卷中解放出来,这样就有更多的时间来单独辅导学生。另一些人则表示,这让他们成了旁观者。一些家长表示,他们担心孩子的数据隐私。

“Summit demands an extraordinary amount of personal information about each student and plans to track them through college and beyond,” said Leonie Haimson, co-chairwoman of the Parent Coalition for Student Privacy, a national organization.

“巅峰要求掌握每个学生的大量个人信息,并计划在整个大学乃至大学毕业后追踪他们,”全国组织学生隐私家长联盟(Parent Coalition for student Privacy)的联合主席莱奥妮·海姆森(Leonie Haimson)说。

Summit says it complies with the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act.

巅峰表示遵守了《儿童在线隐私保护法》(Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act)。

By winter, many McPherson and Wellington students were fed up. While Summit’s program asks schools to commit to having students meet weekly in person with teachers for at least 10 minutes, some children said the sessions lasted around two minutes or did not happen.

到了冬天,许多麦克弗森和威灵顿的学生都受够了。尽管巅峰的课程要求学校承诺让学生每周与老师见面至少10分钟,但一些孩子说,会面只有大约两分钟,或者根本没有进行。

Myriland French, 16, a student at Wellington’s high school, said she had developed eye strain and missed talking to teachers and students in class. “Everyone is more stressed now,” she said.

威灵顿高中16岁的学生米丽兰·弗兰奇(Myriland French)说,她眼睛疲劳,而且怀念和老师同学们在课堂上交谈的日子。“现在所有人的压力都更大了,”她说。

Collin Winter, the eighth grader in McPherson, said he had joined the January class walkout with about 50 other students. “I was scared a little bit,” he said of participating. “But I still felt good to be doing something.”

麦克弗森县八年级的科林·温特(Collin Winter)说,他和约50名其他学生一道参加了1月份的罢课活动。“我当时有点害怕,”他说起参与情况时说。“但仍然觉得能做点什么挺好。”

One recent evening in Wellington, a dozen parents and students held an organizing meeting in the back of a machine workshop owned by Tom Henning, a local parent. Chris Smalley, a machinist with two children, ages 13 and 16, attended. Mr. Smalley had put up bigger and bigger yard signs in front of his house, even though he knew Mr. Zuckerberg was unlikely to drive by and see them. They were red, with a slash across the word “Summit.”

近日在威灵顿的一个晚上,12名家长和学生在当地家长汤姆·亨宁(Tom Henning)的机修行里屋召开了组织会议。有13岁和16岁两个孩子的机械师克里斯·斯莫利(Chris Smalley)参加了会议。斯莫利此前在家门前打出了越来越大的庭院标语,尽管他知道扎克伯格不大可能会开车经过看到它们。标牌是红色的,“巅峰”一词中间划了道斜线。

“It sounded great, what they sold us,” Mr. Smalley said. “It was the worst lemon car that we’ve ever bought.”

“原先听上去好得很,他们跟我们兜售的那一套,”斯莫利说。“那是我们买过的最差劲的柠檬车了。”

Deanna Garver, a church secretary whose sons are in second and eighth grades, had also made a yard sign. It read: “Don’t Plummet With Summit.”

教会秘书迪安娜·加尔弗(Deanna Garver)的两个儿子分别上二年级和八年级,她也树了个庭院标语。上面写着:“别跟着巅峰跌疯了”。

After the fall semester last year, about a dozen parents in Wellington pulled their children out of public school, said Kevin Dodds, a city councilman. In McPherson, Mr. Koenig and his wife, Meggan, enrolled their two children in a Catholic school, using money saved for a kitchen remodel and vacation.

据市议会议员凯文·道兹(Kevin Dodds)称,去年秋季学期后,威灵顿有十几名家长让孩子退出了公立学校。在麦克弗森,科尼格和妻子梅根(Meggan)用为翻新厨房和度假攒的钱让孩子们去一间天主教学校就读。

“We’re not Catholic,” Mrs. Koenig said. “But we just felt like it would be a lot easier to have a discussion over dinner about something that they might have heard in a religion class than Summit.”

“我们不是天主教徒,”科尼格夫人说。“但我们就是觉得,吃晚饭的时候谈论他们从宗教课堂学的东西,还是比从巅峰学的东西容易多了。”

Nearly 40 more families plan on taking their children out of public school by this summer, Mr. Dodds said.

道兹说,另有近40个家庭计划于今年夏天让孩子退出公立学校。

“We’re out in the middle of nowhere,” he said. “So we’re the guinea pigs.”

“我们这儿穷乡僻壤的,”他说。“所以拿我们当小白鼠。”

本文由 语料库 作者:Tmxchina 发表,其版权均为 语料库 所有,文章内容系作者个人观点,不代表 语料库 对观点赞同或支持。如需转载,请注明文章来源。
2

发表评论