亚马逊宣布将关闭中国国内电商业务

SEATTLE — Amazon may dominate online shopping in the Un […]

SEATTLE — Amazon may dominate online shopping in the United States, but in the world’s second-largest market it is all but calling it quits.

亚马逊(Amazon)也许主宰了美国的在线购物行业,但在中国这个全球第二大市场,它几乎正在退出。

Amazon said late Wednesday that it was closing its domestic e-commerce business in China. The company had long struggled to gain traction in China despite operating there for more than a decade.

周三晚些时候,亚马逊宣布将关闭在中国的国内电子商务业务。尽管在中国已运营了十余年,亚马逊在那里一直缺乏吸引力。

Instead of buying products sold locally by Amazon and its marketplace of Chinese suppliers, shoppers at Amazon.cn will be able to buy only some products imported by Amazon’s sites in the United States, Britain, Germany or Japan.

亚马逊中国的购物者将只能购买从亚马逊美国、英国、德国或日本站点进口的商品,而无法购买由亚马逊或中国供应商在本地销售的商品。

Amazon’s Chinese sales are small enough that the company does not break them out in its financial reports. It sells less in the country than in Japan, the smallest market that it does report, which had $13.8 billion in sales last year, about 6 percent of Amazon’s business globally.

亚马逊在中国的销售额太小,以至于公司并未在财报中公开数字。这一销售额低于日本,后者是财报中公开的最小市场,去年的销售额为138亿美元,约占亚马逊全球业务的6%。

“Over the past few years, we have been evolving our China online retail business to increasingly emphasize cross-border sales, and in return we’ve seen very strong response from Chinese customers,” Amazon said in a statement. “Their demand for high-quality, authentic goods from around the world continues to grow rapidly, and given our global presence, Amazon is well-positioned to serve them.”

“过去几年,我们一直在不断发展在中国的在线零售业务,并越来越多地强调跨境销售,作为回报,我们看到了中国消费者的强烈反响,”亚马逊在一份声明中说。“他们对来自世界各地的高质量正品的需求持续快速增长,鉴于我们的全球业务,亚马逊有能力为他们提供服务。”

Amazon bought its way into China in 2004 with a takeover of Joyo.com, a popular online seller of books, for about $75 million. “We’re happy to be part of one of the world’s most dynamic markets,” Amazon’s chief executive, Jeff Bezos, said in a statement at the time.

亚马逊于2004年以大约7500万美元收购了中国书籍在线销售商卓越网(Joyo.com),在2011年将卓越网业务重新命名为亚马逊中国。

It rebranded the Joyo business in 2011 to Amazon China.

亚马逊进入中国的限制比今天外国互联网公司面临的限制要少。但面对与多家本地对手展开的残酷竞争,亚马逊陷入挣扎。它也没能很好地适应独特的中国市场,这个市场对许多商品价格敏感,偏好几乎是即时送达的物流,并且关注海外正品。

Amazon faced fewer restrictions when it entered China than foreign internet companies face today. But the company struggled to compete with a cast of cutthroat local competitors. It also didn’t adapt well to the unique Chinese market, which is price-sensitive for many goods and favors near instant delivery and a focus on authentic foreign products.

亚马逊最初掌控了自己的大部分库存并建立了自己的配送基础设施。相比之下,中国电子商务零售商阿里巴巴(Alibaba)选择专注于成为一个托管一系列小型卖家的平台,并利用当地的配送公司来帮助它提供更低的价格。经年累月,这种方法帮助阿里巴巴成功超越亚马逊。

Amazon initially controlled much of its own inventory and built its own delivery infrastructure. By contrast, Alibaba, the Chinese e-commerce retailer, chose to focus on being a platform that hosted an array of smaller vendors and made use of local delivery companies to help it offer lower prices. Over time the approach helped Alibaba eclipse Amazon.

而像京东(JD.com)这样,采用更接近亚马逊模式的本土竞争对手在物流方面的投入更大,也在与这家美国企业的竞争中胜出。有些人认为,亚马逊的全球布局致使它对中国业务缺乏专注。

Other local players that more closely followed Amazon’s model, like JD.com, invested more heavily in logistics and outcompeted the American company, which some argued was distracted by its presence in markets across the world.

一些品牌和零售商已在中国取得成功,比如星巴克(Starbucks)或耐克(Nike),它们已将中国变为其最重要的市场之一。

In recent years, Amazon has focused more on offering cloud services and its Kindle devices instead of its core e-commerce business in China. Those have struggled under the onus of Beijing’s control.

亚马逊在美国的主要竞争对手沃尔玛(Walmart)一直在扩大其在中国的业务,特别是通过与京东的合作。

“There is no other region that has such a dominant competitor and regulatory environment,” said Simeon Siegel, a retail analyst at Instinet, an equity research firm. “You have to wonder if Amazon gave up on China earlier than this announcement,” he said, given how Amazon barely talks about its Chinese business as opposed to other growing economies like India.

沃尔玛及其山姆会员商店(Sam’s Club)部门在京东的电子商务网站上销售,使这个美国零售商能广泛接触中国消费者。两家公司还采取措施整合他们的库存,以便能够更快地向在京东购物的顾客提供产品。

Some brands and retailers, like Starbucks or Nike, have found success in China, which has become one of their most important markets. “Nike as a brand may drive more revenue in China than Amazon does,” Mr. Siegel said.

沃尔玛还在中国经营着数百家实体店。该公司最近开设了一家“智能超市”,可在不到一小时的时间内提供送货上门服务。

Amazon’s chief rival in the United States, Walmart, has been expanding its business in China, particularly through a partnership with JD.com.

中国消费者仍然可以在亚马逊中国网站上购买Kindle电子书,该公司表示将继续在中国开展其他业务,包括云计算服务。中国卖家和零售商也仍可通过亚马逊向美国等海外消费者销售产品。

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