2016年美国的人权纪录(全文)

国务院新闻办公室3月9日发表《2016年美国的人权纪录》,回应美国发布的“国别人权报告”。全文如下: The […]

国务院新闻办公室3月9日发表《2016年美国的人权纪录》,回应美国发布的“国别人权报告”。全文如下:
The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China published a report titled "Human Rights Record of the United States in 2016" on Thursday. Following is the full text of the report:

2016年美国的人权纪录
中华人民共和国
国务院新闻办公室
2017年3月
Human Rights Record of the United States in 2016
State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China
March 2017

目 录
Contents

导言
Foreword

二、政治权利遭到践踏
II. Political Rights Undermined

四、种族歧视愈演愈烈
IV. Racial Discrimination Worsened

六、粗暴侵犯他国人权
VI. Gross Violations of Human Rights in Other Countries

导言
Foreword

当地时间3月3日,美国国务院发布《2016年国别人权报告》,继续以“人权裁判官”自居,挥舞“人权大棒”,对世界各国人权状况品头论足、横加指责,而对美国自身存在的严重人权问题则全然不顾。人们不禁要问,2016年美国的人权状况到底如何呢?事实说明,2016年美国的人权状况在一些重要方面继续呈恶化趋势。“自由女神”背后不绝于耳的枪声,愈演愈烈的种族歧视问题,以及金钱政治主导下的选举闹剧,使自诩的“人权卫士”以自己的行为戳穿了其编造的人权“神话”。
On March 3 local time, the State Department of the United States released its country reports on human rights practices, posing once again as "the judge of human rights". Wielding "the baton of human rights," it pointed fingers and cast blame on the human rights situation in many countries while paying no attention to its own terrible human rights problems. People cannot help asking about the actual human rights situation of the United States in 2016. Concrete facts show that the United States saw continued deterioration in some key aspects of its existent human rights issues last year. With the gunshots lingering in people's ears behind the Statue of Liberty, worsening racial discrimination and the election farce dominated by money politics, the self-proclaimed human rights defender has exposed its human rights "myth" with its own deeds.

——涉枪犯罪持续高发,监禁率居高不下。全年共发生枪击事件58125起,其中大的枪击事件385起,共造成15039人死亡,30589人受伤,死伤惨重。(注1)美国监禁率居世界第二,每10万居民中有693人被监禁,(注2)受过监禁的人数高达7000万,占成年人的三分之一。(注3)
-- The frequent occurrence of gun-related crimes led to heavy casualties and the incarceration rate remained high. There were a total of 58,125 gun violence incidents, including 385 mass shootings, in the United States in 2016, leaving 15,039 killed and 30,589 injured (www.gunviolencearchive.org, December 31, 2016). The United States had the second highest prisoner rate, with 693 prisoners per 100,000 of the national population (www.statista.com, April 2016). There had been 70 million Americans incarcerated - that's almost one in three adults - with some form of criminal record (harvardlawreview.org, January 5, 2017).

——贫富差距不断扩大,中低收入群体生活状况堪忧。2016年,美国成年人全职工作比例创1983年以来最低水平。(注4)过去30年将近70%的收入流入到最富有的10%的人的腰包,(注5)中产阶级规模出现拐点式萎缩。4500万贫困人口生活困难,(注6)七分之一的美国人生活在贫困线以下。(注7)预期寿命20多年来首次出现总体下降,平均寿命从78.9岁下降到78.8岁。(注8)
-- Livelihood of middle- and low-income groups was worrisome amid widening income gap. In 2016, the proportion of adult Americans who had a full-time job hit a record low since 1983. Over the last three decades, nearly 70 percent of income ended up in the pockets of the wealthiest 10 percent. The population of U.S. middle-class registered a turning point toward contraction. Besides, one out of seven Americans remained in poverty, with life of 45 million people in strained circumstances. The average life expectancy fell from 78.9 years to 78.8 years as the United States posted a drop in overall life expectancy for the first time in over 20 years.

——种族主义持续存在,种族关系日趋恶化。2016年,联合国人权理事会非洲裔问题专家工作组向联合国人权理事会提交正式调查报告,称美国国内种族问题严重,没有解决好殖民历史、奴隶制、种族隔离、种族不平等和种族恐怖主义等问题。警察枪杀使人联想起过去奴隶制私刑处死的种族恐怖主义行为,美国正面临一场“人权危机”。(注9)
-- Racism continued to exist and racial relations worsened. In 2016, the United Nations' Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent reported to the United Nations Human Rights Council that racial problems were severe in the United States. The colonial history, enslavement, racial subordination and segregation, racial terrorism and racial inequality in the United States remained a serious challenge. Police killings were reminiscent of the past racial terror of lynching. The United States was undergoing a "human rights crisis" (www.un.org, August 18, 2016).

——妇女儿童老年人权利保障状况未见改善,弱势群体权利受到严重侵犯。女性收入大幅低于男性,纽约市公共部门的性别薪资差距达18%,(注10)加利福尼亚州薪酬等于或低于最低工资的劳工六成是妇女。(注11)性骚扰、性侵犯事件频发,约四分之一的女性曾在工作中受到过性骚扰,(注12)近两成年轻女性在大学四年期间遭到过性侵犯。(注13)儿童贫困率居高不下,680万名10-17岁的青少年处于食品匮乏状态。(注14)虐待老年人事件时有发生,每年约有500万老年人遭到虐待。(注15)
-- There was no improvement to the protection of rights of women, children and elders, and the vulnerable groups' rights were seriously violated. Women were paid much less compared to their male colleagues. Women with city government jobs in New York made 18 percent less than men (www.nydailynews.com, April 11, 2016). Women comprised about 60 percent of California workers earning minimum wage or less (www.sandiegouniontribune.com, April 10, 2016). Sexual harassments and assaults took place frequently. Roughly one in four women said they have been harassed on the job (www.usatoday.com, July 7, 2016). A total of 20 percent of young women who attended college during a four-year span said they had been sexually assaulted (www.washingtonpost.com, March 5, 2016). Poverty rate among children remained high and an estimated 6.8 million people aged 10 to 17 are food insecure (www.urban.org, September 11, 2016). Cases of elder abuse happened from time to time and about 5 million older adults were subject to abuse each year (www.csmonitor.com, June 15, 2016).

——侵犯他国人权现象屡有发生,肆意滥杀无辜。2014年8月8日至2016年12月19日,美国空袭伊拉克7258次,空袭叙利亚5828次,造成733起平民死亡事件,共导致4568-6127名平民死亡。(注16)2009年以来,美国无人机攻击仅在巴基斯坦、也门和索马里就造成超过800名平民伤亡。(注17)非法关押和虐待他国囚犯问题迟迟未得到解决。
-- The United States repeatedly trampled on human rights in other countries and willfully slaughtered innocent victims. From August 8, 2014 to December 19, 2016, the United States launched 7,258 air strikes in Iraq and 5,828 in Syria, causing 733 incidents with an estimated number of civilian deaths between 4,568 and 6,127 (airwars.org, December 19, 2016). Since 2009, the upper limit of the civilian death toll from U.S. drones stood at more than 800 people in Pakistan, Yemen and Somalia. (www.theguardian.com, July 1, 2016) The issue of illegal detention and torturing prisoners of other countries remained unsolved.

——拒绝批准核心国际人权公约,拒不接受联合国有关人权决议草案。美国至今仍未批准《经济、社会和文化权利国际公约》《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》《儿童权利公约》和《残疾人权利公约》等核心国际人权公约。在2016年第71届联合国大会期间,美国对关于“发展权”“人权与单方面强制措施”“促进建立一个民主和公平的国际秩序”“和平权利宣言”等涉及人权的决议草案投了反对票。(注18)
-- The United States refused to approve core international conventions on human rights and did not accept UN draft resolutions related to human rights. It still has not ratified core international human rights conventions, including the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women; the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. At the 71st General Assembly of the UN, the United States voted against draft resolutions related to human rights including "The right to development," "Human rights and unilateral coercive measures," "Promotion of a democratic and equitable international order," and "Declaration on the right to peace" (www.un.org, December 19, 2016).

一、生命人身权利受到严重侵犯
I. Serious Infringement on Right to Life, Personal Security

2016年,美国政府枪支管控不力,执法部门滥用权力,犯罪得不到有效遏制,公民权利特别是生命权利受到严重威胁,人身权利持续受到侵犯。
In 2016, the U.S. government exercised no effective control over guns, law enforcement departments abused their power, and crimes were not effectively contained. As a result, civil rights, especially the right to life, were seriously threatened and people's personal rights were continuously infringed upon.

涉枪案件持续高发。美国联邦调查局2016年9月26日发布的统计数据显示,在2015年的暴力犯罪中,71.5%的谋杀案、40.8%的抢劫案和24.2%的严重暴力伤害案中使用了枪支。(注19)据美国枪支暴力档案室发布的《2016年枪支暴力伤亡统计》,全年共发生枪击事件58125起,其中大的枪击事件385起,共造成15039人死亡,30589人受伤。(注20) 2016年6月12日,一名持枪者在奥兰多一家夜总会内开枪,造成50人死亡,53人受伤,这是美国历史上发生的最严重的枪击事件。(注21)
Occurrence of gun-related crimes sustained a high level. According to data released by the FBI on September 26, 2016, firearms were used in 71.5 percent of the nation's murders, 40.8 percent of robberies, and 24.2 percent of aggravated assaults in 2015 (ucr.fbi.gov, September 26, 2016). According to a toll report by the Gun Violence Archive, there were a total of 58,125 gun violence incidents, including 385 mass shootings, in the United States in 2016, leaving 15,039 killed and 30,589 injured (www.gunviolencearchive.org, December 31, 2016). On June 12, 2016, a gunman opened fire inside a crowded nightclub in Orlando, killing 50 people and injuring 53 others in a rampage that was the deadliest mass shooting in the country's history (www.washingtonpost.com, June 12, 2016).

犯罪率激增。据美国联邦调查局2016年发布的《2015年美国犯罪报告》,2015年美国共发生1197704起暴力犯罪,较2014年增加3.9%;平均每十万居民中发生372.6起,较2014年增长3.1%。在全部暴力犯罪案件中,严重暴力伤害案占63.8%,抢劫案占27.3%,强奸案占7.5%,谋杀案占1.3%。共发生7993631起财产犯罪,被害人因财产犯罪(不包括纵火)而遭受的损失合计143亿美元。(注22)据美国市场研究公司网站发布的数据,2015年美国50个州被谋杀和非过失杀害的人数为15696人。(注23)英国《每日邮报》网站2016年7月26日报道,2016年上半年美国51个主要城市谋杀案数量同比增长15%,其中芝加哥的谋杀案件同比增长48%。(注24)时任白宫新闻秘书乔什·厄内斯特指出,一些城市“正在经历一波令人不安的暴力犯罪浪潮”,(注25)美国总统也曾表示“犯罪正在失控并且急速恶化”。(注26)仇恨犯罪增多。据美国联邦调查局2016年公布的《2015年仇恨犯罪统计》,2015年执法部门共上报由种族、族群、血统、宗教、性取向、残疾、性别和性别认同偏见导致的犯罪案件5850起,尚未定罪或不定罪的违法案件6885起。(注27)
The crime rate shot up. According to the report "Crime in the United States" released by the FBI in 2016, there were an estimated 1,197,704 violent crimes committed around the nation in 2015, up 3.9 percent from the previous year. The estimated rate of violent crime was 372.6 offenses per 100,000 inhabitants, an increase of 3.1 percent compared with the 2014 rate. Among the 2015 violent crime total, 63.8 percent were aggravated assaults, 27.3 percent were robberies, 7.5 percent rapes and 1.3 percent murders. Nationwide, there were an estimated 7,993,631 property crimes, with the victims of such crimes suffering losses calculated at an estimated 14.3 billion U.S. dollars (ucr.fbi.gov). In 2015, an estimated 15,696 cases of murder and non-negligent manslaughter occurred nationwide, according to data released by Statista (www.statista.com). The United Kingdom's Daily Mail website reported on July 26, 2016 that homicides in 51 major U.S. cities in the first half of last year were up a startling 15 percent, and the homicide rate in Chicago was up 48 percent year on year (www.dailymail.co.uk, July 26, 2016). Josh Earnest, then the White House press secretary, pointed out that it was a problem that some cities "are experiencing a troubling surge in violent crime" (www.washingtonpost.com, May 14, 2016). The U.S. president also admitted that "crime is out of control, and rapidly getting worse" (www.dailymail.co.uk, July 26, 2016). Hate crime cases also surged. According to Hate Crime Statistics, 2015 released by the FBI, law enforcement agencies submitted incident reports involving 5,850 criminal incidents and 6,885 related offenses as being motivated by bias toward race, ethnicity, ancestry, religion, sexual orientation, disability, gender, and gender identity in 2015 (www.fbi.gov, November 14, 2016).

警察滥用执法权力。美国联邦调查局2015年犯罪报告数据显示,当年美国执法部门共实施10797088次逮捕,逮捕率为每十万居民3363人。(注28)美国警察在执法中滥用枪支现象非常严重。2015年6月1日至2016年3月31日,共发生1348起因逮捕而造成的死亡,平均每月发生135起。(注29)2016年共有963人被警察枪杀。(注30)《华盛顿邮报》报道,截至2016年7月8日,被美国警方枪杀的509人中,至少有124人是精神疾病患者。(注31)警察滥用职权枪杀平民却极少被追究刑事责任,每年有大约1000名平民被警察射杀,但2005年至2016年只有77名警察因此而被指控犯有过失杀人罪或谋杀罪。(注32)
Police abused their law enforcement power. According to the crime data released by the FBI, law enforcement made an estimated 10,797,088 arrests in 2015 nationwide. The estimated arrest rate for the United States in 2015 was 3,363 arrests per 100,000 inhabitants (ucr.fbi.gov). Gun abuse was serious among the U.S. police during law enforcement. Media reviews identified 1,348 potential arrest-related deaths in the United States from June 1, 2015 through March 31, 2016, an average of 135 deaths per month (www.bjs.gov, December 22, 2016). A total of 963 people were shot and killed by police in 2016 (github.com/washingtonpost/data-police-shootings). According to a report by the Washington Post, as of July 8, 2016, of the 509 killed by U.S. police in that year at least 124 were thought to be suffering from mental illness (www.statista.com, July 8, 2016). Police officers who kill civilians rarely face criminal charges. About 1,000 civilians are killed by police each year, but only 77 officers have been charged with manslaughter or murder in connection with those deaths between 2005 and 2016 (www.washingtonpost.com, October 19, 2016).

监禁率居高不下。据美国市场研究公司2016年4月发布的数据,美国是世界上监禁率第二高的国家,每十万居民中有693人被监禁,2014年美国的在押犯人约为220万人,(注33)美国全国受过监禁的人数达到7000万人,占成年人的三分之一。(注34)亚拉巴马州监狱设计总容量为1.3万人,目前关押2.8万人,负载已超过一倍多。服刑者健康没有保障,肺结核、皮肤病相互传染。(注35)《华盛顿邮报》网站2016年11月28日报道,两名洛杉矶警员因殴打一名精神病囚犯并伪造记录掩盖其虐囚行为而被判监禁。(注36)《华盛顿邮报》网站2016年12月19日报道,洛杉矶警察局警察殴打和虐待囚犯,该警察局局长阻碍联邦部门开展调查,最终该警局20名成员被定罪。(注37)《华盛顿邮报》网站2016年12月2日报道,在纽约市赖克斯岛监狱的一名警卫“野蛮地”将一名生病的犯人踢死。(注38)监狱内死亡事件不断攀升。据美国联邦司法统计局2016年12月公布的数据,2001年至2014年,共发生50785起囚犯死亡事件。2014年美国联邦监狱和州监狱中共发生3927起囚犯死亡事件,是监狱死亡报告项目2001年实施以来报告的最大数值。自杀是地方监狱死亡的首要原因,2014年共发生372起,比2013年增加13%。在州监狱,自杀死亡人数呈现连续增长之势,2013-2014年间增长了30%。(注39)
The incarceration rate remained high. According to data released by a U.S. market research firm in April 2016, the United States had the second highest prisoner rate, with 693 prisoners per 100,000 of the national population. Roughly 2.2 million people were incarcerated in the United States in 2014. (www.statista.com, April 2016) There had been 70 million Americans incarcerated -- that's almost one in three adults -- with some form of criminal record (harvardlawreview.org, January 5, 2017). Only designed to hold about 13,000 people in total, the U.S. Alabama's prisons now housed 28,000 prisoners, more than doubling the designed capacity. The health of inmates cannot be safeguarded and infectious diseases including tuberculosis and dermatosis were easily transmitted from one to another. (apr.org, December 16, 2016) The website of Washington Post reported on November 28, 2016 that two policemen were imprisoned for beating a mentally-ill inmate and forging records to cover up their prisoner abuse (www.washingtonpost.com, November 28, 2016). According to a report of the Washington Post website on December 19, 2016, guards at the Los Angeles County Sherriff's Department had beaten and abused in mates. Its former head thwarted a federal investigation into the beatings and other abuses at the Los Angeles County jail system he ran. The probe led to convictions of 20 members of the Sheriff's department (www.washingtonpost.com, December 19, 2016). The Washington Post reported on its website on December 2, 2016 that a guard at New York City's jail complex Rikers Island "savagely" kicked an ailing inmate to death (www.washingtonpost.com, December 2, 2016). In-prison deaths continued to increase. According to data released by the Bureau of Justice Statistics in December 2016, between 2001 and 2014, there were 50,785 inmate deaths in the United States. In 2014, there were 3,927 inmate deaths in state and federal prisons. This is the largest number of inmate deaths reported since the Deaths in Custody Reporting Program (DCRP) began collecting data in 2001. Suicide was the leading cause of death in local jails. There were 372 suicides in 2014, up 13 percent from 2013. The number of suicides in state prisons increased by 30 percent from 2013 to 2014 (www.bjs.gov, December 2016).

二、政治权利遭到践踏
II. Political Rights Undermined

2016年,金钱政治和权钱交易主导美国选举,竞选过程谎言充斥,闹剧不断,政治权利无法保障,民众抵制和抗议活动此起彼伏,充分暴露了美国民主的虚伪本质。
In 2016, money politics and power-for-money deals had controlled the presidential election, which was full of lies and farces. There were no guarantees of political rights, while the public responded with waves of boycott and protests, giving full exposure of the hypocritical nature of U.S. democracy.

投票率迭创新低。2016年选举投票率大约只有55%,为20年来最低。(注40)越来越多的美国民众对总统选举表示反感甚至愤怒。皮尤研究中心在选举投票之前的调查显示,很多曾准备参加投票的选民因为愤怒而放弃投票。他们不仅仅是不关心政治,而是对政治事务彻底厌恶和反感。(注41)
Voter turnout and support rate reached new low. Only about 55 percent of voting age citizens cast ballots in the 2016 election, lowest in 20 years (edition.cnn.com, November 30, 2016). A growing number of Americans were disappointed or even angry about the election. Pew research conducted prior to the election showed that many of the voters who planned on coming to the polls were angry. Those who didn't vote this time went beyond alienation to antipathy -- a complete aversion and dislike for things political (www.huffingtonpost.com, December 6, 2016).

史上最昂贵的大选。2016年美国联邦职位的竞选花费超过了以往任何一年,达到68亿美元,比消费者在麦片上的花费(60亿美元)还要多。在国会议员选举中,候选人及其支持团体大约花费42.6亿美元,比2012年超出4.1亿美元。(注42)《华盛顿邮报》网站披露,截至2016年11月底,民主党和共和党提名的总统候选人的筹款分别达到14亿和9.32亿美元。(注43)美国有线电视新闻网认为,2016年的美国选举是“金钱赢得一切的一年”,是“有钱人的黄金时代”。(注44)金钱政治引发了全国范围内的广泛抗议,大量示威者被警察逮捕。
Most Expensive Election Ever. Americans who are running for federal elective offices spent more than ever -- about 6.8 billion U.S. dollars. That's more than what consumers spend on cereal (6 billion U.S. dollars). Candidates seeking House and Senate and the independent groups supporting them are expected to shell out 410 million U.S. dollars more than during the 2012 presidential election (www.cbsnews.com, November 8, 2016). According to the website of the Washington Post, Clinton's campaign had raised 1.4 billion U.S. dollars by the end of November 2016, while Trump's had raised 932 million U.S. dollars (www.washingtonpost.com, December 9, 2016). CNN reported that 2016 was "the year when money won nobody nothing," and "a golden age to be a man of means" (us.cnn.com, November 12, 2016). Money politics had triggered nationwide protests, in which many were arrested by the police.

主流媒体缺乏客观中立。2016年选举中美国主流媒体大量充满偏见和特定立场的报道评论,充分暴露了其既不客观又不中立的本质。美国媒体对总统选举的报道表现出鲜明的党派政治立场。根据加州大学圣巴巴拉分校进行的调查,全美100家报纸中有57家支持民主党总统候选人,2家支持共和党总统候选人。美国昆尼皮亚克大学10月19日的一个民调显示,55%的选民认为媒体对总统选举的报道存在偏见,其中共和党选民持此观点的比例高达9成,中间选民持此观点的比例为61%。(注45)
Media failed to be objective and impartial. U.S. media published a lot of biased reports and commentaries during the 2016 election, fully demonstrating their failure in staying objective or impartial. The media clearly chose their side in covering the election. Among the top 100 newspapers based on daily circulation, 57 endorsed the Democratic nominee while 2 the Republican, according to data revealed by the media endorsements count conducted by University of California, Santa Barbara. A poll made by Quinnipiac University on October 19, 2016 also found that the news media was biased in its coverage of the presidential election, a feeling shared by 55 percent of American likely voters, including about 90 percent of Republicans and 61 percent of independent voters (poll.qu.edu, October 19, 2016).

三、中低收入群体生活状况堪忧
III. Grim Living Conditions of Low- and Middle-income Americans

2016年,美国社会两极分化更加严重,成年人全职工作比例创1983年以来最低水平,(注46)收入差距持续扩大,中产阶级规模出现拐点式萎缩,(注47)底层民众生活境况日趋恶化。
In 2016, the U.S. social polarization became more serious, with the proportion of adults who had full-time jobs hitting a new low since 1983 (www.gallup.com, September 20, 2016), income gaps continuing to widen, the size of middle class reaching a turning point and beginning to shrink (bigstory.ap.org, May 12, 2016), and living conditions of the lower class deteriorating.

收入差距持续扩大。英国《卫报》网站2016年5月17日报道,美国500强公司首席执行官的收入是普通工人平均收入的340倍,普通工人2015年的收入扣除物价因素,与50年前几乎没有差别。(注48)《商业内幕》网站披露,扣除价格因素,1978年至2015年,美国最大的350家公司的首席执行官薪酬增长了约940%,普通工人却只增长了10%。(注49)《华尔街日报》网站报道,在过去30年中,将近70%的收入流入到最富有的10%的美国人手里。《纽约时代周刊》语带讥讽地称之为近年来最令人瞠目的“经济成就”。(注50)
Income gaps continued to widen. On May 17, 2016, the website of The Guardian reported that the U.S. top 500 chief executive officers (CEOs) earned 340 times the average worker's wage in 2015. Adjusted for inflation, wages of ordinary workers remained stagnant for 50 years. (www.theguardian.com, May 17, 2016) The businessinsider.com revealed that while CEOs of the 350 largest U.S. companies grew by about 940 percent from 1978 to 2015 after adjusting for inflation, the typical worker's pay grew just 10 percent over that time (www.businessinsider.com, August 15, 2016). The website of the Wall Street Journal reported that over the past 30 years, nearly 70 percent of incomes went to the 10 percent richest Americans, which was called the most astonishing "economic achievement" in recent years by The Time sarcastically (www.newser.com, December 8, 2016).

中产阶级规模萎缩。《华尔街日报》报道,1940年出生的美国人中,有92%的人在30岁时收入超过他们父母30岁时的收入;而在1980年出生的人中,这一比例下降到51%。(注51)盖洛普咨询公司研究发现,美国人将自己定位为中产或上中产阶级的比例,在2000-2008年间平均为61%,而2016年下降至51%,意味着2500万人的经济生活质量急剧下滑。(注52)皮尤研究中心2016年5月11日发布的报告显示,在近25%的大都市中,中产阶级不再占据多数。(注53)2000-2014年间,美国中产阶级比例下降了四个百分点,在53个大都市地区则下降了六个百分点甚至更多。(注54)皮尤研究中心对全国范围内1500名成年人的调查表明,62%的人认为政府对中产阶级缺乏足够的重视。(注55)
The middle class shrank. The Wall Street Journal reported that 92 percent of people born in 1940 earned more at 30 years old than their parents did when they were the same age. However, for people born in 1980, that percentage dropped to 51. (www.newser.com, December 8, 2016) According to consulting firm Gallup, the percentage of Americans who said they were in the middle or upper-middle class had fallen by 10 percentage points, from an average of 61 percent between 2000 and 2008 to 51 percent in 2016. That drop meant 25 million people in the United States fared much worse in economic terms. (www.gallup.com, September 20, 2016) According to a Pew Research Center report released on May 11, 2016, the American middle class was no longer the majority at nearly 25 percent of large cities (bigstory.ap.org, May 12, 2016). From 2000 to 2014, the share of adults living in middle-class households fell by 4 percentage points nationally, and declined by 6 percentage points or more in 53 metropolitan areas (www.pewsocialtrends.org, May 11, 2016). A Pew survey showed 62 percent of 1,500 surveyed adults said the government had not cared enough about the middle class (www.pewsocialtrends.org, February 4, 2016).

低收入和贫困人口生活状况恶化。每7个美国人中就有1人生活在贫困线以下,至少4500万贫困人口生活困难。(注56)皮尤研究中心的调查显示,49%的民众确认其家庭收入入不敷出,42%的民众认为其家庭刚能维持收支平衡。(注57)2015年年底,无家可归者约为50万人,(注58)大城市无家可归者人数急剧上升。仅威斯康星州就有超过6万人无家可归。(注59)成千上万快餐业、家庭护理和机场工作人员等低收入人群为争取每小时15美元最低工资标准的实现而不断举行罢工。(注60)
Low-income and poverty population lives deteriorated. One in seven Americans, or at least 45 million people, lived in poverty (www.dailymail.co.uk, September 10, 2016). A Pew survey showed 49 percent of Americans said they could not make ends meet; 42 percent said they managed to strike a balance between incomes and expenditures (www.pewsocialtrends.org, February 4, 2016). By the end of 2015, homeless people stood at about 500,000 (www.theatlantic.com, February 11, 2016). The number of homeless people surged in large cities. There were more than 60,000 homeless people in Wisconsin (www.usatoday.com, October 16, 2016). Thousands of low-income people in industries including fast food, home care and airport went on strike repeatedly for the minimum wage standard of 15-U.S.-dollar per hour (www.theguardian.com, November 21, 2016).

预期寿命下降。据美国国家健康统计中心2016年12月8日发布的数据,2015年美国人预期寿命20多年来首次出现总体下降,男性从2014年的76.5岁下降到76.3岁,女性则从81.3岁下降到81.2岁,总体平均寿命从78.9岁下降到78.8岁。(注61)与此同时,自杀率持续升高。据美国疾病控制和预防中心的报告,2013年美国共有41149人自杀,比1999年增加了约41%,自杀成为导致死亡的第十大原因,是凶杀案的两倍以上。(注62)2015年,自杀率再创新高,达到近30年以来的最高值。(注63)
Life expectancy dropped. Life expectancy in the United States in 2015 declined for the first time in more than two decades, according to data released by the National Center for Health Statistics on December 8, 2016. Life expectancy for men fell from 76.5 years in 2014 to 76.3 in 2015, while that for women decreased from 81.3 to 81.2. Overall life expectancy dropped from 78.9 to 78.8 years (www.bbc.co.uk, December 8, 2016). At the same time, suicide rate in the United States rose. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that there were 41,149 suicides in the United States in 2013, up by about 41 percent from 1999. Suicide was the tenth leading cause of all deaths in the United States in 2013, claiming twice as many lives than homicide (www.bls.gov, December 2016). In 2015, the suicide rate in the United States surged to its highest level in almost three decades (www.bbc.co.uk, April 22, 2016).

健康状况下降。盖洛普咨询公司发布的报告指出,自1990年以来,25岁至59岁的美国居民在每个年龄段自我报告健康状况都在下降。美国劳动年龄人口中,因患有残疾而无法从事工作的人口比例从1980年的4.4%上升到2015年的6.8%。这种状况与美国医疗系统费用过高却效率过低相关。(注64)《芝加哥论坛报》网站2016年12月6日报道,美国复杂和不透明的处方药支付系统使药品公司的高管能够对普通药品设置高昂的价格,有些甚至利用病人的免费优惠券将药物价格提高了10倍。(注65)
Health conditions declined. For U.S. residents, self-reported health status had fallen among each age group between 25 and 59 since 1990, according to a report from Gallup. The share of the working-age population suffering from a disability that prevented them from working rose from 4.4 percent in 1980 to 6.8 percent in 2015, adjusting for age. That situation was related to the exorbitant costs and weak efficiency of the U.S. health system (www.gallup.com, December 15, 2016). The convoluted and opaque system of paying for prescription drugs enabled executives of drug companies to set extraordinary prices on modest medicines that had been around for years, and some companies even used free coupons for patients to raise drug prices by 10 times, the Chicago Tribune reported on December 6 (www.chicagotribune.com, December 6, 2016).

社会保障体系存在严重弊端。《得梅因纪事报》2016年12月25日报道,全美残疾人申请福利排队名单已达1136849名,申请人需要等26个月才仅能得到行政部门的听证通知。(注66)根据单身母亲指南2016年9月17日发布的统计数据,在被解雇或正在找工作的单身母亲中,只有22.4%能够领到失业救济金。(注67)美国有线电视新闻网2016年12月12日报道,美国有16个州的监狱系统没有为释放囚犯提供医疗补助,9个州仅提供非常有限的补助项目,而这25个州每年释放约375000名囚犯。费城监狱每年释放9000名患有慢性病的囚犯,其中66.7%被释放后无法享受医疗救助。(注68)
Social security system was seriously flawed. The Des Moines Register reported that there were 1,136,849 applicants of federal disability benefits on the waiting list, which meant they could wait up to 26 months to get an administrative-law hearing on their claim for benefits (www.desmoinesregister.com, December 25, 2016). Statistics released by the singlemotherguide.com showed only 22.4 percent of the single mothers who had been laid off or looking for work received unemployment benefits in the United States (singlemotherguide.com, September 17, 2016). CNN reported that 16 state prison systems in the United States had no formal procedure to enroll prisoners in Medicaid as they reentered the community. The story said nine states had only small programs in select facilities or for limited groups of prisoners. It went on to say that these 25 states collectively release some 375,000 inmates each year. The CNN report also said two-thirds of the 9,000 chronically ill prisoners released each year by Philadelphia' s jails were not getting enrolled as they left (edition.cnn.com, December 12, 2016).

四、种族歧视愈演愈烈
IV. Racial Discrimination Worsened

2016年,美国种族关系日趋恶化,白人警察枪杀非洲裔事件频繁发生,执法司法领域存在明显的种族歧视,少数种族在就业和收入方面与白人存在系统性差距,在学校和社会生活中遭遇各种隐性和显性的种族歧视。《今日美国》网站2016年7月14日报道,调查显示,52%的美国人认为针对非洲裔的种族歧视问题“非常严重”。《纽约时报》和哥伦比亚广播公司的联合调查显示,69%的受访者认为美国的种族关系整体很差。60%的受访者认为美国的种族关系正在趋于恶化,而一年前认同这一观点的比例仅为38%。(注69)
In 2016, racial relations in the United States continued to deteriorate. There were repeated incidents of African Americans being shot by white police. Racial discrimination heavily influenced law enforcement and justice fields. There were systematic gaps between minority races and white people in employment and income. Minority people endured various discriminative treatments in schools and social lives. The USA Today website reported on July 14, 2016 that a poll found 52 percent of Americans believed racism against black people was an "extremely" or "very" serious problem. According to a New York Times-CBS News survey, 69 percent of poll respondents said race relations in the United States were generally bad. Six in ten Americans said race relations were growing worse, up from 38 percent a year ago (www.usatoday.com, July 14, 2016).

警察枪杀非洲裔事件连续发生。根据“警察暴力地图”网站的统计,2016年美国警察至少杀死了303名非洲裔美国人。(注70)2016年7月5日,37岁的非洲裔男子斯特林在路易斯安那州巴吞鲁日的便利店外与人发生冲突,警察赶到之后将其制伏在地,骑在他身上近距离连开多枪将其射杀。(注71)2016年7月6日,明尼苏达州警察拦检一辆尾灯发生故障的汽车时,在非洲裔男子卡斯提尔拿取驾照过程中将其射杀。卡斯提尔的母亲表示,儿子作为非洲裔“出生在了错误的国家”,控诉“这是对非洲裔美国人民无声的战争”。美国政府也承认这两起致命的枪击案并非孤立事件,而是预示着刑事司法系统面临更广泛的挑战。(注72)连续两天发生警察枪杀非洲裔事件,引发了全国性的强烈抗议。2016年7月7日,在得克萨斯州达拉斯市中心的游行示威活动期间,一名非洲裔退伍军人开枪打死5名警察,打伤9名警察,行凶者自称杀死白人警察就是为了抗议警方枪杀非洲裔美国人的暴行。(注73)《华盛顿邮报》网站对2015年美国警察枪击案的调查显示,非洲裔美国人被警察枪杀的概率是白人的2.5倍。在与警察遭遇的情况下,手无寸铁的非洲裔被警察枪杀的概率是白人的5倍。(注74)2016年2月17日,非洲裔男子加斯顿在经历严重车祸神志恍惚的状态下被辛辛那提三名警察开枪击毙,警方的解释是他试图去取腰带上挂的枪,但事后证明那是一支假枪。而仅在此前一天,一名白人男子甚至用这种假枪对准辛辛那提的警察,警方却没有开枪,毫发无损地将其逮捕后仅以威胁警方的罪名进行起诉。《纽约每日新闻》网站评论称,这两个相似事件的不同结果突出表明了警察对待非洲裔和白人态度完全不同,在美国的确存在着种族上的双重标准。(注75)《华盛顿邮报》网站2016年12月6日报道,28岁的白人韦尔奇携带半自动步枪进入华盛顿西北部一家餐厅,之后放下武器从餐厅走出,背向警察双手举起,警察没有开枪。(注76)与此形成鲜明对照的是,2016年9月16日,在俄克拉何马州塔尔萨市,手无寸铁的非洲裔男子克拉彻在高举双手背向警察的情况下被白人警察开枪击毙,他在被杀之前还遭遇了警方泰瑟枪的电击。(注77)
Incidents of police killing African-Americans happened repeatedly. According to the Mapping Police Violence website, American police killed at least 303 African-Americans in 2016 (mappingpoliceviolence.org, December 2016). On July 5, 2016, Alton Sterling, a 37-year-old African-American man, entered into clashes with others outside a convenience store in Baton Rouge, Indiana. After police arrived, they held him to the ground, straddled over his body and killed him with multiple gunshots (edition.cnn.com, July 8, 2016). On July 6, 2016, police in Minnesota stopped a car with mal-functioning rear light and shot an African-American man Philando Castile when he was getting his license and registration. Castile's mother said her son was "black in the wrong place" and said there was "a silent war against African-American people." The U.S. government admitted that the two fatal shootings were not isolated incidents, but symptomatic of the broader challenges within the U.S. criminal justice system (www.bbc.com, July 7, 2016). Two consecutive police killings of African Americans triggered violent protests nationwide. On July 7, 2016, during the protests in Dallas, Texas, five police officers were shot and killed and nine more were injured by an African-American veteran, who said he wanted to kill white police officers to protest against police brutality (www.usatoday.com, July 14, 2016). A Washington Post website report on police shootings in 2015 found that black Americans were 2.5 times as likely to be shot and killed by police as white Americans. Unarmed black men were five times as likely to be shot and killed by police as unarmed white men (www.washingtonpost.com, December 6, 2016). On February 17, 2016, Paul Gaston, a 37-year-old Cincinnati man, had just been in a serious car accident before he was shot and killed by three police officers. Police claimed Gaston appeared to reach for a gun in his waistband, but it turned out to be a fake one. A day before, a white man pointed a similar fake gun at the police in Cincinnati, but the police did not fire a shot, only peacefully arrested the man and charged him with menacing. The New York Daily News website commented that the two incidents and their differing outcomes highlighted the different police attitudes towards black and white men and the racial double standards in America were real (www.nydailynews.com, February 19, 2016). The Washington Post website reported on December 6, 2016, that Edgar Maddison Welch, 28 years old, entered a restaurant in northwest Washington while carrying a semiautomatic rifle. Welch walked backward out of the restaurant unarmed and with his hands up, and the police did not shoot him (www.washingtonpost.com, December 6, 2016). In sharp contrast, on September 16, 2016, Terence Crutcher was shot and killed by police in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Crutcher had his hands up and back turned. Police officer also deployed Taser gun on him (www.cbsnews.com, September 19, 2016).

执法司法领域种族歧视司空见惯。《纽约时报》网站2016年8月10日报道,巴尔的摩市长期以来实施“零容忍”街头执法,鼓励警察仅依据轻微的、高度自由裁量的过错而广泛采取截停、搜查和逮捕行动,这些做法违反了宪法,并侵犯了公民的法定权利。来自全国各地警察部门的数据显示,在实施“零容忍”策略地区,警察逮捕的对象主要为贫困社区中的非洲裔美国人,而对富裕白人社区同样的行为视而不见。(注78)美国公共宗教研究所的调查表明,64%的非洲裔认为社区内存在警察虐待问题,81%的非洲裔则认为警察枪杀非洲裔是广泛存在的一种普遍现象。(注79)《华盛顿邮报》网站2016年8月31日报道,五年前印第安纳州南本德市警察误将18岁的非洲裔高中生富兰克林认作嫌疑人,在没有获得搜查令的情况下闯入其家中,对其殴打电击并错误逮捕。2016年8月初,陪审团认定警方严重侵犯了富兰克林的宪法权利,但法官仅判决每名被告赔偿他及家人1美元,合计18美元。南本德市主任牧师西姆斯说:“这个微不足道的赔偿传递给富兰克林及其家人一个强烈的信号:你的权利只值1美元。”(注80)
Racial discrimination in law enforcement and judicial fields was common. The New York Times website reported on August 10, 2016, that Baltimore relied on 'zero tolerance' street enforcement, which encouraged officers to make large numbers of stops, searches and arrests for minor, highly discretionary offenses. These practices led to repeated violations of the constitutional and statutory rights. Data from police departments around the country showed that officers using the zero-tolerance strategy focused their arrests on African-American men in poor neighborhoods, while ignoring the same offenses in wealthier white neighborhoods (www.nytimes.com, August 10, 2016). A poll by the U.S. Public Religion Research Institute showed that 64 percent of the African Americans said police mistreatment was a major problem in their community. More than 81 percent black Americans said police killings of African American men were part of a broader pattern of how police treat African Americans (www.prri.org, August 7, 2016). The Washington Post website reported on August 31, 2016 that five years ago, police in South Bend, Indiana, mistook 18-year-old high school senior DeShawn Franklin as a suspect and went inside his home without a search warrant. They punched him several times and used a stun gun on him. In August 2016, the jury found the officers violated Franklin's constitutional rights, ordered each of the defendants to pay Franklin and his parents one dollar for the violation of their rights. The total award was 18 dollars in damages. Mario Sims, a senior pastor in South Bend, said the small amount of compensation sent a strong message to Franklin and his family: "your rights are worth a dollar" (www.washingtonpost.com, August 31, 2016).

少数族裔在就业和收入方面与白人的差距持续扩大。美国劳工统计局数据显示,2016年12月非洲裔的失业率接近白人的两倍,拉美裔的失业率比白人高出35%以上。(注81)《纽约每日新闻》网站2016年9月21日报道,非洲裔和白人的收入差距已经达到近40年来最严重的地步。2015年非洲裔和白人的时薪差距扩大到惊人的26.7%。白人平均时薪为25.22美元,而非洲裔的平均时薪则仅为18.49美元。(注82)非洲裔男性的平均时薪1979年比白人男性低22%,2015年扩大到31%;非洲裔女性时薪差距则从6%扩大到了19%。(注83)全国妇女法律中心的报告显示,白人男性每收入1美元,拉美裔女性只能收入54美分;工作40年后与相对应的白人男性相比,非洲裔和拉美裔女性将分别少收入87.7万美元和100万美元。(注84)
Gap between minority and white people was widened in employment and income. According to the American Bureau of Labor Statistics, unemployment rate for African-Americans in December 2016 was close to two times the figure for white Americans. Unemployment rate for Latin Americans was 35 percent higher than white Americans (www.bls.gov, January 6, 2017). The New York Daily News website reported on September 21, 2016 that the wage gap between blacks and whites was the worst in nearly four decades. In 2015, the hourly pay gap between blacks and whites widened to 26.7 percent, with whites making an average of 25.22 U.S. dollars an hour compared to 18.49 dollars for blacks (www.nydailynews.com, September 21, 2016). Almost 40 years ago in 1979, the hourly wage gap between black and white men was 22 percent, but the figure rose to 31 percent in 2015. The hourly wage gap between black and white women grew from six percent to 19 percent (www.theguardian.com, September 20, 2016). The American National Women's Law Center reported that Latina women earned as little as 54 cents for ever dollar white men made. Black and Latino women would lose more than 877,000 U.S. dollars and one million dollars respectively over a 40-year career compared to their white male counterparts (www.theguardian.com, August 16, 2016).

公立学校的纪律处分存在明显种族差异。美国教育部2013年至2014年民权数据显示,遭受离校停课处分的280万学生中,有110万是非洲裔学生。非洲裔学生遭受离校停课处分的可能性是白人学生的3.8倍。(注85)《今日美国》网站2016年10月5日报道,特拉华州印度河学区设立了进行隔离性特殊教育的“卡弗学院”,作为违纪学生的隔离管教场所。在印度河学区就读的白人学生携带手机上学,手机通常会被临时没收一天;而非洲裔学生的背包中如被发现带有手机,就会被直接送到“卡弗学院”。非洲裔学生不成比例地被以各种借口送到“卡弗学院”,以随意的理由对他们进行随意时长的隔离,完全忽视学生的教育需求。一些家长联合向联邦法院提起诉讼,称该学院成了惩罚非洲裔学生的“垃圾倾倒场”。(注86)
Disciplinary punishments are clearly differentiated among racial groups in public schools. Civil rights data from the U.S. Department of Education from 2013 to 2014 show that among the 2.8 million students suspended from school, 1.1 million are African-Americans. The likeliness of suspension for African-American students is 3.8 times that for white students (www.ibtimes.com, August 25, 2016). The USA Today website reported on October 5, 2016, that the Indian River School District of Delaware had set up George Washington Carver Academy in Frankford as a segregated special-education school for discipline-violating students. At the Indian River School District, white students who bring cell phones to school usually see their phones confiscated for one day, but an African-American student seen with a phone in the backpack is directly referred to Carver. African-American students were sent to Carver in disproportionate numbers on various pretexts and they were segregated at Carver on arbitrary ground and for arbitrary periods of time while their educational needs were neglected. A coalition of parents filed a lawsuit to the federal court, contending that the school had become a "dumping ground" for African-American students (www.usatoday.com, October 5, 2016).

穆斯林遭遇日益严重的歧视。《华盛顿邮报》网站2016年12月9日报道,82%的受访者认为美国的穆斯林面临歧视,其中57%的人认为穆斯林面临严重歧视,这一比例比三年前的调查高出7个百分点。皮尤研究中心的调查还显示,穆斯林多年来都是美国最受歧视的群体。(注87)
Muslims suffer increasingly serious discrimination. The Washington Post website reported on December 9, 2016, that 82 percent of Americans believe Muslims in the United States face discrimination and a majority of 57 percent say Muslims face "a lot" of discrimination, which is seven percentage points higher than in the last poll three years ago. Surveys by Pew Research Center show that Muslims have, for years, ranked as the group that faces the most discrimination in the United States (www.washingtonpost.com, December 9, 2016).

种族歧视遭到联合国严厉谴责。联合国人权理事会非洲裔问题专家工作组2016年1月9日至29日在美国进行调查后,对诸如警察枪杀非洲裔美国人、校警粗暴对待非洲裔学生、针对非洲裔群体的暴力被免予刑罚、带有种族偏见的刑事司法系统、非洲裔被不成比例地大规模监禁以及因贫困被刑事定罪等问题表示了严重关切。现任联合国非洲裔问题工作组负责人弗朗斯女士强调:“和其他人口相比,非洲裔美国人几乎在所有人类发展指标如预期寿命、收入和财富、教育水平、住房、劳动就业,甚至食品安全等方面都存在着固化的差距。这些差距所体现的结构性歧视在事实上构成了非洲裔充分实现自己人权的巨大障碍。”(注88)专家工作组的调查报告指出,美国政府未能履行保护非洲裔权利的责任,制度性和结构性种族主义的持续存在,对非洲裔公民权利、政治权利、经济社会文化权利造成了负面的影响。报告重点批评了警察暴力以及刑事司法系统中的种族歧视行为。大量案例证明执法人员存在暴力执法与过度使用致命武力的问题,而这些行为大多被免予刑事处罚。“警察枪杀非洲裔及其带来的心理创伤使人联想起过去私刑处死的种族恐怖主义行为。对国家暴力行为免予刑罚已经造成了当前的人权危机,必须作为紧急事项予以处理。”报告称,警察对手无寸铁的非洲裔的杀戮,只是司法体系中普遍存在的种族偏见的冰山一角。非洲裔男性的被监禁率比白人男性高5.9倍,非洲裔女性的被监禁率比白人女性高2.1倍,非洲裔仅占美国总人口的14%,却占联邦和各州囚犯总数的36%。非洲裔自小就被视作危险的犯罪群体,面临着有罪推定。非洲裔要比白人更可能面临严厉的刑事惩罚,尤其是在死刑上。报告指出,非洲裔还在教育、医疗、住房、就业等方面处于严重不平等状况。26%(超过1000万)的非洲裔处于贫困之中,12%的非洲裔生活在极度贫困之中。2015年美国50多万无家可归者中,非洲裔占了40.4%。(注89)
Racial discrimination is strongly condemned by the United Nations. After conducting investigations across the United States from January 9 to 29 of 2016, the UN Human Rights Council's Expert Group on People of African Descent expressed serious concerns about the police killings, the presence of police in schools, violence targeting the African American community with impunity, racial bias in the criminal justice system, and mass incarceration and the criminalization of poverty which disproportionately affects African Americans. Ms. Mireille France, who currently heads the UN Expert Group, stressed, "The persistent gap in almost all the human development indicators, such as life expectancy, income and wealth, level of education, housing, employment and labor, and even food security, among African Americans and the rest of the U.S. population, reflects the level of structural discrimination that creates de facto barriers for people of African descent to fully exercise their human rights (www.un.org, January 29, 2016). The Expert Group's investigative report pointed out, the U.S. government failed to fulfill its obligations of protecting the rights of Americans of African descent and that systematic and structural racism continues to negatively impact the civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights of African Americans today. The report particularly criticized police killings and racial bias in the criminal justice system. A large amount of cases prove that violence and overuse of lethal forces exist in law enforcement processes and these behaviors are mostly exempted from criminal punishment. "Police killings and the trauma it creates are reminiscent of the 'racial terror and lynching' of the past. Impunity for state violence has resulted in the current human rights crisis and must be addressed as a matter of urgency." According to the report, police killings of unarmed Americans of African Descent are only one tip of the iceberg of the widespread racial discrimination in the justice system. The incarceration rate for African American males is 5.9 times higher than the rate for white males, while the rate for African American females is 2.1 times higher than the rate for white females. African Americans only constitute 14 percent of the U.S. population, but they account for 36 percent of federal and state prisoners. African Americans are regarded as dangerous criminal groups since childhood and face presumption of guilt. African Americans are more likely to face serious criminal punishments than white Americans, particularly on capital punishment. The report pointed out that African Americans are also in seriously unequal situations on education, medical care, housing, and employment. Twenty-six percent (more than 10 million) of African Americans remain mired in poverty and 12 percent live in what is known as "deep poverty." In 2015, of the more than half a million homeless people in the United States, African Americans constituted 40.4 percent (www.un.org, August 18, 2016).

五、妇女儿童老年人权利缺乏应有保障
V. Women, Children, Elders' Rights Lack Proper Protection

2016年,美国妇女儿童老年人权利保障状况堪忧,女性收入大幅低于男性,频繁遭受性骚扰和性侵犯,儿童贫困率居高不下,虐待老年人事件时有发生。
The situation of protection of rights of women, children and elders in the United States was worrisome in 2016. Women were paid much less compared to their male colleagues who do the same work, and they frequently fell victims to sexual harassment and assault. Poverty rate among children remained high and cases of elder abuse happened from time to time.

性别收入差距明显。2016年,在工作量同等的情况下,美国女性的平均薪资仍然大幅低于男性。(注90)纽约市公共部门的性别薪资差距达18%;(注91)而在圣迭戈的主管层级人员中,男性薪资超过女性薪资的情况更加明显,女性要比男性平均每年少收入大约3.7万美元。(注92)据全国妇女法律中心对联邦劳动统计数据的分析,加利福尼亚州薪酬等于或低于最低工资的劳工六成是妇女。(注93)
Gender pay gaps remained large. Women were paid much less compared to their male colleagues who do the same work in 2016 (www.washingtonpost.com, March 8, 2016). An analysis found women with city government jobs in New York made 18 percent less than men (http://www.nydailynews.com, April 11, 2016). Gender pay gap among supervisor staff in San Diego was even wider. Women who work for San Diego County supervisors earned about 37,000 U.S. dollars less in pre-tax pay per year on average (www.sandiegouniontribune.com, August 14, 2016). Women comprised about 60 percent of California workers earning minimum wage or less, according to a review of federal labor statistics by the National Women's Law Center (www.sandiegouniontribune.com, April 10, 2016).

性骚扰、性侵犯事件频繁发生。《今日美国》网站2016年7月7日报道,大约有四分之一的女性曾在工作中受到性骚扰。(注94)由于许多受害者因各种原因不敢提出指控,这种情况的实际数量可能会高得多。《纽约邮报》网站2016年7月14日报道,调查发现田纳西州议会议员达勒姆曾利用职务之便至少对22名女性实施性骚扰,其中包括实习生、游说者、雇员以及党工。(注95)在执法领域,美国警方不仅对性侵犯受害者权利保障不够,而且在处理性侵害案件过程中存在严重性别偏见。《纽约时报》网站2016年10月28日报道,巴尔的摩警方不仅蔑视性侵犯受害者的投诉,而且让试图举报性侵犯的妇女蒙受羞辱,指责或阻止她们辨认犯罪嫌疑人。更有甚者,有些警员以免于逮捕、现金或毒品为交换条件胁迫参与性交易的弱势群体为其提供性服务。(注96)《洛杉矶时报》2016年10月28日报道,在过去12个月里,贫民区居住的妇女有一半遭到过攻击,其中四分之一遭受过性侵犯。(注97)美国教育部民权办公室调查报告显示,截至2016年2月26日,美国有167所高校正在接受涉及性暴力问题的联邦调查。《华盛顿邮报》与凯泽家庭基金会2015年的联合民调显示,近两成的年轻女性在大学四年期间遭到过性侵犯。(注98)据加州大学圣克鲁兹分校针对200名研究生的调查,有32.6%的受访者表示他们曾遭到或知道有人曾遭到过性骚扰。(注99)中小学校园性暴力事件也不断发生,美国教育部在2015财年收到了65起有关基础教育学区处理校园性暴力的民权投诉,是上一年度的三倍。(注100)《迈阿密先驱报》网站2016年9月21日报道,一名16岁的高中女孩被同学性侵之后,反而因申诉被校方多次停课,而且在调查过程中遭到了二次心理伤害。(注101)
Sexual harassments and assaults took place frequently. The USA Today website reported on July 7, 2016 that roughly one in four women say they have been harassed on the job (www.usatoday.com, July 7, 2016). It said that with many victims too frightened to speak up, attorneys and employment experts said the actual number of such instances was likely far higher. The New York Post website on July 14, 2016 reported that an investigation found Tennessee lawmaker Jeremy Durham used his position to sexually harass at least 22 female interns, lobbyists, staff and political workers (nypost.com, July 14, 2016). In the law enforcement field, the U.S. police failed to provide adequate protection for sexual assault victims and are deeply dismissive of such people. The New York Times website on October 28 reported that Baltimore officers sometimes humiliated women who tried to report sexual assault and disregarded some complaints filed by certain victims. Some officers blamed victims or discouraged them from identifying their assailants. There were even complaints that some officers target members of a vulnerable population -- people involved in the sex trade -- to coerce sexual favors from them in exchange for avoiding arrest, or for cash or narcotics (www.nytimes.com, October 28, 2016). A Los Angeles Times report on October 28 said that nearly half of skid row women had been attacked in the previous 12 months; more than a quarter of them were sexually assaulted (www.latimes.com, October 28, 2016). As of February 26, 2016, federal investigations related to sexual violence were underway at 167 colleges and universities, according to the Education Department. A Washington Post-Kaiser Family Foundation poll in 2015 found that 20 percent of young women who attended college during a four-year span said they had been sexually assaulted (www.washingtonpost.com, March 5, 2016). A survey of Santa Cruz graduate students found that 32.6 percent of 200 respondents said they had been sexually harassed or knew someone who had been (www.latimes.com, March 2, 2016). Sexual violence also happened in primary and secondary schools. The Education Department in fiscal 2015 received 65 civil rights complaints related to K-12 school districts' handling of sexual violence - triple the number the agency had received the year before (www.washingtonpost.com, January 17, 2016). The Miami Herald website on September 21 reported that after a 16-year-old girl told her high school she was sexually assaulted, her school failed to respond properly and she was further traumatized during the investigation. She was eventually suspended (www.miamiherald.com, September 21, 2016).

儿童权利缺乏充分保护。根据美国城市研究所2016年9月11日发布的研究报告,680万名10-17岁的青少年处于食品匮乏状态。一些青少年通过偷窃、色情活动、贩毒等手段来填饱肚子,有些青少年为了获取食物而故意使成绩下降,以便参加暑期的补习班来获得学校的午餐,甚至还有些儿童将入狱作为获得食物的备选方案。(注102)皮尤研究中心的调查显示,59%的人认为政府对穷人及儿童做得不够。(注103)美联社网站2016年10月14日报道,美国2016年上半年每隔一天就会发生一起未成年人因意外枪击死亡事件。(注104)据《今日美国》网站10月5日发表的研究报告,美国在19个州中有超过16万学生是学校体罚的受害者。(注105)得克萨斯州14000个儿童受虐案未能及时处理,该州儿童保护服务组织未能在预期时间内探视处理儿童家暴事件,造成多名儿童在立案后仍难逃被虐身亡。(注106)
Protection for children's rights was inadequate. The U.S. Urban Institute on September 11, 2016 released a report noting that an estimated 6.8 million people aged 10 to 17 are food insecure. When faced with acute food insecurity, some youths engaged in criminal behavior such as selling drugs and stealing items to resell for cash. Some youths sold sex for money to pay for food. In a few communities, teens talked about going to jail or failing school (so they could attend summer classes and get school lunch) as viable strategies for ensuring regular meals (www.urban.org, September 11, 2016). A survey conducted by the Pew Research Center found that about 59 percent of people said the government does not do enough for poor people or for children (www.pewsocialtrends.org, February 4, 2016). An Associated Press website report on October 14 said that during the first six months of 2016, minors died from accidental shootings at a pace of one every other day (bigstory.ap.org, October 14, 2016). USA Today website reported on October 5 that a new research suggested that more than 160,000 children in 19 states are the victims of corporal punishment in schools each year (www.usatoday.com, October 5, 2016). In mid-September, more than 14,000 kids in Texas had not been seen by child abuse investigators within state-mandated timeframe after a report of abuse. Some children died in child abuse cases were already on the Child Protective Services radar (www.mystatesman.com, October 4, 2016).

老年人处境艰难。《基督教科学箴言报》网站2016年6月15日报道,美国全国老人防虐中心估计每年有约500万老年人遭到虐待,其中90%是被家庭成员尤其是他们的子女虐待。虐待的形式有的是口头的,有的是经济上的,还有的是身体或者性虐待。(注107)老年妇女的贫困状况尤其堪忧。国家退休安全研究所的报告显示,在65岁及以上的年龄段,妇女比男性的贫困率高出80%,75岁至79岁的女性贫困人数是男性的3倍。(注108)
Elders lived in difficulties. A report at the Christian Science Monitor website on June 15 said that according to estimates of the U.S. National Center on Elder Abuse, of the 5 million older adults abused each year, 90 percent are abused by family members, and half are the person's children. Abuse can be verbal, financial, physical, or sexual (www.csmonitor.com, June, 15, 2016). The situation for elderly women was even worrisome. The National Institute on Retirement Security reported that women are 80 percent more likely than men to be impoverished at age 65 and older. Women at age 75 to 79 are three times more likely (www.chicagotribune.com, July 10, 2016).

六、粗暴侵犯他国人权
VI. Gross Violations of Human Rights in Other Countries

2016年,美国依然粗暴侵犯他国人权,空袭造成大量平民伤亡,海外监听项目侵犯他国公民隐私权,在世界多处设立监狱非法关押虐待囚犯。
In 2016, the United States continued to trample on human rights in other countries, causing tremendous civilian casualties. Its overseas monitoring projects infringed on the privacy of citizens of other countries and the United States set up detention camp that illegally detained and tortured prisoners in many places on the globe.

空袭行动造成大量平民伤亡。空中战争跟踪组织统计,2014年8月8日至2016年12月19日,美国空袭伊拉克7258次,空袭叙利亚5828次,造成733起平民死亡的事件,共导致4568-6127名平民死亡。(注109)《洛杉矶时报》网站2016年12月2日报道,美国在阿富汗楠格哈尔省进行的空袭行动中造成了至少15名平民死亡,遭到联合国谴责。(注110) 2009年以来,美国无人机攻击仅在巴基斯坦、也门和索马里就造成超过800平民伤亡。(注111)
Air strikes caused a large number of civilian casualties. According to Airwars, a project aimed at tracking air strikes in the Middle East, the United States had repeatedly organized coalition forces to launch air strikes against military forces in Iraq and Syria since August 8, 2014. As of December 19, 2016, the United States launched 7,258 air strikes in Iraq and 5,828 in Syria, causing 733 incidents with an estimated number of civilian deaths between 4,568 and 6,127 (www.airwars.org, December 19, 2016). According to a report by the website of Los Angeles Times on December 2, a U.S. airstrike killed at least 15 civilians in Afghanistan's Nangarhar province (www.latimes.com, December 2, 2016). Since 2009, the upper limit of the civilian death toll from U.S. drones stood at more than 800 people in Pakistan, Yemen and Somalia (www.theguardian.com, July 1, 2016).

非法关押和虐待他国囚犯问题迟迟未得到解决。美国政府早在2009年就承诺在一年之内关闭关塔那摩监狱,但直到2016年12月4日,仍然有59名囚犯关押其中。(注112)《华盛顿邮报》2016年6月14日报道,美国公民自由联盟以“违反信息自由”将中央情报局告上法庭,迫使其公布50份解密文件。其中一份文件显示,在中央情报局设在阿富汗的“盐坑”监狱中,嫌疑人拉曼被关在冰冷的牢房,身上被不断浇水,最终死于体温过低。(注113)另一份题为《身体压力描述》的报告显示,中央情报局曾使用包括“扇耳光”“戴成人尿片进行羞辱”“害虫噬咬”“假装活埋”等方式虐待囚犯。2016年11月,国际刑事法院首席检察官在一份报告中指出,美国军队和中央情报局在阿富汗境内对被拘留者施加酷刑的做法,很有可能已经犯下了战争罪行。(注114)
The issue of illegal detention and torturing prisoners of other countries remained unsolved. The U.S. government promised to close Guantanamo Bay detention camp in 2009, but as of December 4, 2016, there were 59 detainees at Guantanamo Bay (www.cnn.com, December 4, 2016). According to a report by the Washington Post on June 14, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) filed a lawsuit against the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) on violating "Freedom of Information" and forced the CIA to release 50 declassified documents. A declassified report revealed in a CIA prison in Afghanistan known as the Salt Pit, militant Gul Rahman was placed in an "extremely cold" cell, suffered from pouring water to his body, and was determined to have died of hypothermia while in detention (www.washingtonpost.com, June 16, 2016). In a document titled "Description of Physical Pressures," the CIA tortured detainees including a facial slap, use of diapers, "insects," and "mock burial." In November 2016, the International Criminal Court's chief prosecutor said in a report that the U.S. armed forces and the CIA may have committed war crimes by torturing detainees in Afghanistan (www.csmonitor.com, November 15, 2016).

继续进行大规模海外监听。美国情报部门长期监听他国国家元首和其他领导人、外交机构和普通民众。自2013年6月斯诺登曝光美国的“棱镜”项目以来,美国监听其他国家和国际组织领导人、普通民众和相关企业的范围仍在不断扩大,技术手段日益翻新,受到强烈批评。2016年,美国中央情报局通过投资有关私人公司,加大了对各国公民在推特、脸谱、Instagram等社交媒体上发表言论的监控力度。(注115)位于纽约市中心的一座无窗大厦是美国国家安全局在曼哈顿的秘密监听中心,不仅监听美国国内通讯,而且针对国际货币基金组织、世界银行和其他至少38个国家采取监听行动。(注116)美国国家安全局在大楼内运营代号为“Titanpointe”的间谍中心,利用大楼内美国国际电话电报公司的设备,监测进出美国的电话、传真及网络信息,截取包含邮件、聊天、Skype电话、密码以及网络浏览历史信息的卫星数据。美国的上述行为遭到了国际社会的广泛批评。
The United States continued overseas monitoring projects in a large scale. The U.S. intelligence agencies placed long-term monitoring of head and leaders of other states, diplomatic institutions and common people. Since National Security Agency (NSA) contractor Edward Snowden leaked the U.S. surveillance programs to the new media in June 2013, the United States continuously extended the scale to monitor head and leaders of other states, common people and related enterprises with updated technologies which draw sharp criticism. In 2016, the CIA invested in firms to mine Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and other social media (theintercept.com, April 15, 2016). A windowless Manhattan skyscraper appeared to be a secrete location used for NSA surveillance program that targeted not only domestic communication but also the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and at least 38 countries (www.independent.co.uk, November 17, 2016). A spy base named Titanpointe in NSA building used equipment with companies such as AT&T and spied on phone calls, fax messages and internet data, intercepting satellite data including emails, chats, Skype calls, passwords, and internet browsing histories. The United States drew vast criticism from the international community.

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