专八英文写作笔记

作文评分标准

  1. 内容阐述能力 :内容要点、论据丰富、论证有力
  2. 篇章组织能力 :通顺、衔接自然
  3. 语言运用能力:词汇准确、句式丰富自然、无句法错误

因此,要多掌握作文写作框架,学会论证,考前积累总结各种句型,按体裁和内容进行分类。

头脑风暴(brainstorm:观点、例子、引言、好词好句。

针对主题词(key words)和主题句(topic sentence),进行多角度论证(观点句)+结论句

 

常见写作论证

  1. 假设论证-对中心句假设(条件状语和目的状语):if、without、in case、as long as
  2. 因果论证-把中心句作为条件:as a result、therefore、when
  3. 举例论证:
  4. 对比论证:正反对比、过去和现在对比
  5. 事实论证:用数据说理
  6. 名人论证:

我们常用:例证法、驳论论证法、引用名言/专家观点、层进式推理法

①例证法:主题句+举例(正/反例)+例子影响/作用

②驳论论证法:主题句+进一步具体解释主题句+转折句+如果不怎么样…+只有…

揭露和驳斥错误,反动的论点来确立自己的观点。驳论点、驳论证、驳论据。

可直接反驳、反证法、归谬法。 作用:“破”→辨别是非,驳斥错误,树立正确观点。

③层进式推理法:主题句+to start with…,moreover…+总结

④引用名人名言:主题句+名人名言

写作文体归类  

  1. 正反对比,问题选择:①观点——②给出原因——③总结
  2. 观点分析,现象分析:①对观点现象明确表态——②理由论证——③总结
  3. 提出问题:①给出问题回答——②依次做出详细解释和说明
  4. 阐述主题:①阐述主题蕴含的意义——②从多方面举例论证——③总结观点
  5. 引言感想、看法:①写出对引言的感想,提炼文章主题——②详细说明问题几点内容——③总结全文
  6. 现象看法:①描述现象——②不同角度分析原因——③影响——④总结
  7. 两者关系议论:①A重要——②现状——③提出对策——④总结

引言类:

①引言+总结:引入话题(1.介绍背景;2.利用数据;3.名言;4.设问;5.驳论)——总结材料——提出自身观点;

②主体论证:

1.例证:主题句+举例+例子影响+主题句+措施意义;

2.驳论:主题句+进一步解释主题句+转折(如果不)+只有怎么样

3.层进:主题句+to start with +moreover+总结

4.名言:主题句+名人名言+总结

③结尾:同义反复+名言+修辞手法

  1. 总结前文论文(重申观点)
  2. 升华主体,呼吁行动

3.指出问题,提出建议

常用衔接词

  1. 次序和时间:Firstly (First of all; To start with)、besides、meanwhile、what’s more(moreover:此外;而且)、last but not least、一方面:On the one hand; 另一方面:On the other hand
  2. 相似和相反:despite、in spite of 、while、similarly、however、nevertheless、in contrast、on the contrary、unfortunately、in other words
  3. 总结:all in all、to conclude、in conclusion、to sum up、in brief、 in a word、in a nutshell
  4. 强调:as known to all、not only…but also、in particular、more importantly、to make it worse
  5. 举例:for example、for instance、take……as an example、a case in point goes to…

 

常用词汇和短语

  1. ……的利弊:the benefits and drawbacks of sth.
  2. 这些建议的优缺点:the merits and demerits of these proposals.
  3. 关于这问题,人们莫衷一是。Opinions about this issue vary.
  4. 中立者:fence-sitter
  5. 从那时起:ever since then
  6. 我认为:I deem that; I reckon that;
  7. 其他人认为:others point out that; argue that;
  8. 结果表明:results indicated that
  9. ……是冰山一角:sth be the tip of the iceberg.
  10. 在我看来,我持……观点:As for myself, I am of the opinion that the advantages of online education outweigh its disadvantages.
  11. 自主学习者:self-directed learners
  12. 错配;失调:mismatch// This mismatch is the very obstacle that prevents many young talents from the teaching profession.
  13. 本末倒置:put the cart before the horse// You will put the cart before the horse if you emphasize the method at the expense of content.如果你过分强调方法而忽视内容,那将是分不清主次。
  14. 在幼年强调让孩子学会外语而不是同情心,无疑是本末倒置之举。Overemphasizing foreign language skills instead of the sense of empathy at such an early age is no doubt putting the cart before the horse.
  15. 往往;倾向于…(常常):tend to do// We tend to make mistakes when we do things in a hurry.
  16. 倾向于(想要):be inclined to// He was inclined to accept the offer.
  17. 达到临界点:reach a tipping point
  18. 没有;缺乏:be devoid of // be devoid of gratitude:忘恩负义
  19. 募集资金高达10亿:garner a staggering $1 billion.
  20. 提高……意识:heighten/deepen/raise people’s awareness
  21. 固有偏见:inherent discrimination
  22. 不能做某事:fail to do sth. // be unable to do sh. // can’t help to do sth.
  23. 感到困惑:feel perplexed
  24. 不受……影响:be immune to

我们不可能不受周围环境的影响:we are not immune to the influences around us.

  1. 对……具有深远的影响:exert a profound influence on sth. //make a profound difference
  2. It is self-evident that……when it comes to……(指出显而易见党的现象或原因)

在……方面,……是不言而喻的。

  1. Given its negative consequences,……should be devoted to effectively cracking down on……before it runs wild.(结尾呼吁采取行动)

考虑到它的负面影响,我们应该在它失控前投入……以便有效打击……

  1. 某人经历着这样的心理斗争:Sb has experienced the mental struggle on……
  2. 此外,……的营造需要……的共同努力

Furthermore, the cultivation of ……needs the shared efforts of ……(结尾呼吁共同努力)

  1. 引发全球支持热潮:bring an outpouring of support across the world.
  2. 迅速走红;病毒式广泛传播:go viral // The dance shared on social media quickly go viral.
  3. 风靡全球:has swept across the world.
  4. 7月29日,热门事件迅速走红:July 29 witnessed the emergence of a sensational activity named ……
  5. 取精去粗:we shall make the best use of the advantages of sth and bypass its disadvantages.
  6. 在我看来,这个活动一时兴起,又突然结束,与它的初衷相去甚远:In my view, judging from the situation the activity is sliding into, it will wind up a far cry from its original purpose.

对比描述论证

Rather than being restricted in classrooms, learners can sign up for any course they are interested in as long as they have the access to the Internet.

Contrary to the opponents, as for the demerit of online education, I presume that…

名人名言

  • 正如一句古话所说:As a saying goes, "                                                                                        ".
  • 古人云:As an old saying goes, "                                                                                                    ".
  • 正如一句谚语所云:as a proverb goes, "                                                                                       ".
  • As is maintained by Aristotle,a towering ancient Greek philosopher,"                               ".
  • To paraphrase 4th-century B.C. philosopher Aristotle, "                                                           ".

Let him who would move the world first move himself. ——Socrates

Your attitude, not your aptitude, will determine your altitude. ——Zig Ziglar

The secret of getting ahead is getting started. ——Mark Twain

天才不过是勤奋而已:Genius is nothing but labor and diligence.

论文摘要

This article focuses on sth. It explores the effects of sth. This article offers specific information regarding sth. The author provides sth for.

 

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