纽约时报 | 疼痛偏见:女性就诊是否受到不平等对待

Pain bias: The health inequality rarely discussed 疼痛偏见: […]

Pain bias: The health inequality rarely discussed

In 2009, my doctor told me that, like “a lot of women”, I was paying too much attention to my body. Saying there wasn’t an issue, he suggested I just relax and try to ignore the symptoms.


The decision seemed to run counter to what my records showed. A few weeks earlier, I had ended up in the emergency room with chest pains and a heart rate hitting 220 beats per minute. The ER crew told me it was a panic attack, gave me Xanax and told me to try to sleep.


I’d had panic attacks before. I knew this episode was not one. So I went to my doctor.


He put me on a heart monitor overnight. Bingo: I had another episode, this time recorded. It didn’t matter. I still left his office thinking it was perhaps anxiety. And so, listening to the advice, I tried to ignore the pain.


Until it happened again. And again. First every month, then every week. Over the following nine years, I would complain about it and be told again that I was having panic attacks or anxiety, that women don't feel heart pain the way I was feeling it, and that maybe I was just confused.


My experience was not uncommon. Abby Norman, author of Ask Me About My Uterus, went through a similar path to discovering she had endometriosis, a painful condition where endometrial tissue grows on other organs than the uterus. Several doctors told her she had a urinary tract infection C until she went to an appointment with her boyfriend, who could vouch for her pain. Norman writes that she also struggled to be diagnosed with appendicitis; one doctor decided her symptoms were the result of childhood sexual abuse, even though Norman was clear that that never had happened.

这种体会很常见。《问问我的子宫》的作者诺曼(Abby Norman)求医的经过与我很相似,她是子宫内膜异位,子宫内膜组织长在其它器官上,而不是子宫上,症状之一是疼痛。好几个医生却告诉她是尿路感染――直到她带着男朋友一起去看了医生,男朋友证明她确实有疼痛感。诺曼写道,她的阑尾炎的诊断过程也很费劲;一位医生认为,她的症状是儿童性侵导致的,尽管诺曼很清楚,那是从来没有的事。

Both anecdotes and academic research point to a disturbing trend: in the medical industry, there’s a long history of dismissing women’s pain. More difficult to determine is whether this is due to gender bias, a lack of medical research on women, or actual differences between how the sexes interpret pain.


What we do know is that when it comes to pain, men and women are treated differently. One study, for example, found that women in the emergency department who report having acute pain are less likely to be given opioid painkillers (the most effective type) than men. After they are prescribed, women wait longer to receive them.


Another study found that women in emergency departments are less likely to be taken seriously than men. In a 2014 study from Sweden, once in the A&E women waited significantly longer to see a doctor and were less often classified as an urgent case.


This can have lethal consequences. In May 2018 in France, a 22-year old woman called emergency services saying her abdominal pain was so acute she felt she was "going to die." "You'll definitely die one day, like everyone else," the operator replied. When the woman was taken to hospital after a five-hour wait, she had a stroke and died of multiple organ failure.


Seeing women treated differently in the emergency department is a fairly well established phenomenon, says Esther Chen, an emergency medicine doctor at Zuckerburg San Francisco General Hospital and co-author of the study on opioid painkillers.


But “it’s hard to tease out whether it’s simply implicit bias C which all of us have C or whether it’s the way we judge women and pain in terms of their presentation for different clinical conditions,” Chen says.


Her study, for example, researched acute abdominal pain. She suspects that women who present to the emergency department with abdominal pain are often assumed to have a gynaecological problem, which many doctors believe is less likely to require opioids than an acute surgical disease.


Meanwhile, women are more likely to receive anti-anxiety medications than men when they come to a hospital with pain C and are more often written off as psychiatric patients.


“Women have been more often referred to psychologists or psychiatrists, whereas men are given tests to rule out actual organic conditions,” says Christin Veasley, co-founder and director at the Chronic Pain Research Alliance who helped compile the above report.

威尔斯利(Christin Veasley)说,"女性更可能会转诊到心理医生或精神病医生那里,男性则会安排检查,排除机体器官的问题", 威尔斯利是慢性疼痛研究联盟的联合创始人和董事长,参与编写上述报告。

As former executive director of the National Vulvodynia Association, Veasley saw an alarming track record of bad medical diagnoses and advice.


“The things I heard from women… that doctors told them were completely ridiculous,” she says. “Things like, you must be having marital problems. Have a glass of wine before you have sex. It’ll be better. The list goes on and on.


“It’s hard to imagine that a medical professional who took an oath to ‘do no harm’ could say these things.”


The common assumption is that women are quicker to complain of medical problems than men. Indeed, one UK study found, for example, that men consulted GPs 32% less than women. It’s possible that doctors therefore dismiss women’s reports of pain as less serious.


But other evidence suggests that it is wrong to assume that women are more likely than men to complain about the same pain. A meta-analysis of studies on two common types of pain, back pain and headache, found that men and women were equally likely to go to the doctor. The evidence that women are faster to go to the doctor is “surprisingly weak and inconsistent”, the researchers wrote. A similar study found women were no more likely to consult a GP than men with the same pain symptoms.


Still, many researchers and doctors point out that studies dating as far back as 1972 and as recently as 2003 show that women have a lower pain tolerance than men C something encouraged, of course, by cultural gender norms. Research also has found that women present with symptoms more closely resembling anxiety and have a higher tendency of becoming addicted to opioids, points out Karen Sibert, president of the California Society of Anesthesiologists.

而且,许多研究人员和医生指出,早自1972年,近到2003年的研究,都说明女性对于疼痛的耐受力比男性低――当然,有性别文化准则的影响。加州麻醉师协会的主席赛博特(Karen Sibert)说,研究还发现,女性的症状表现更像是焦急症,更有可能会对鸦片类药物上瘾。

As a result, it might be entirely appropriate to dole out anti-anxiety medication to women before taking the extra step of painkillers, Sibert says. “When people are anxious, their pain tolerance becomes less,” she says. “It may be best to try to get their anxiety and fear under control first and then see what the pain requirements are.”


Another complication is that oestrogen alters both the perception of pain and the response to painkillers, says Nicole Woitowich, director of science outreach and education at the Women’s Health Research Institute.

妇女健康研究所科学服务与普及部的负责人妮可・沃伊托维绮(Nicole Woitowich)说,另一个难题是雌激素会改变病人对疼痛的感知,和对止痛药物的反应。

That means there are “sex differences in the way women experience pain”, Woitowich says. So it’s imperative that women and men are treated differently in order to develop a personalised approach to the patient’s care.


If doctors want to focus on treating patients in a tailored, effective way, they “should at least start by treating patients based on their chromosomal makeup, either male (XY) or female (XX),” Woitowich says.

如果医生致力于一种因人而异的、行之有效的治疗方法,他们"至少应该在就诊时,考虑患者的染色体构成,男性(XY)或女性(XX)", 沃伊托维绮说。

Sex study


But to know exactly what those differences are C and how they affect treatment C much more research is needed.


Before 1990, the year the National Institutes of Health (NIH) introduced the Office of Research on Women’s Health, clinical trials and diagnoses in the US focussed on men. (These trials often were overseen by men as well.) In Europe, women have been similarly left out of studies. Same with Canada and the UK.


That led to a massive body of medical evidence, including pain-focused lab studies, with a predominantly male perspective.


“When the history of an ailment, including the defining of textbook cases, is largely being written by men about men, it becomes the precedent to which anyone else is held up,” Norman says.


In 2015, the US’s NIH introduced a policy that requires medical investigators to take sex into consideration as a biological variable. Now, anyone who applies for grant funding from the NIH must either research both males and females, or give compelling reasoning for why only one sex should be examined. We have yet to see, though, if it will make a difference. “Since this policy is relatively new, it may take a few more years before we see if it has made an impact on how research is conducted and if it has become more inclusive,” Woitowich says.


In 2017, the National Health Service in the UK also issued a similar dictum that the NHS must “listen to women” C though this was only meant to speed up endometriosis diagnoses. Since the early 2000s, Canada and Europe have incorporated similar policies; however, none of these have become laws or requirements, instead operating as suggestions and advice for researchers.


That doesn’t, however, eliminate the innate biases that physicians and other medical workers tend to have towards women’s pain.


Louise Pilote of Quebec’s McGill University Health Center co-authored a study showing patients with more ‘feminine’ personality traits across both genders had a higher risk of poor access to care. On the surface it may seem like that backs an implicit bias between treating men and women. But she points out that it was more complicated: the variations actually stemmed from poverty and how ‘feminine’ the personality, according to traits outlined in the Bem Sex Role Inventory, not from biological sex.

魁北克省麦吉尔大学医疗中心的皮洛特(Louise Pilote)是一项研究的合著者,她发现在两种性别中,患者"女性化"的性格特点越突出,诊疗不理想的风险就越高。表面上看,这好像是证明医疗界对于男性和女性患者的固有偏见。但她指出,实情要复杂得多:差异实际上源于贫困,以及是什么样的"女性化"性格。而这里所谓的女性化不是指生理上的性别,而是指美国社会心理学家桑德拉贝姆的性别角色量度表中列出的性外表特征和性别角色。

Pilote also has an evidence-based explanation for why my own heart issues were postponed for so long. Heart disease is less prevalent in women than men. It occurs later in life in women. And when women are seen for cardiac issues, they often focus on symptoms outside the realm of chest pain, she says.


Indeed, I was mostly concerned with how I felt as a result of my chest pain and rapid heartbeat: lightheaded, out of breath, and dizzy. I can see why a doctor might consider it to be simple anxiety.


In January 2018, I finally found resolution in the form of a different cardiologist, a woman who listened and didn't explain away my pain as just a side effect of worrying or anxiety. I got back on a heart monitor, received an official diagnosis Cand in March underwent surgery.


Perhaps I waited almost 10 years for treatment because heart disease is less common in women. Perhaps because my symptoms truly sounded like textbook anxiety. Or perhaps because of gender-based assumptions that women are more likely to complain of pain and less likely to have physical reasons for it.


Even if I think my gender had everything to do with it, I’m not sure it will ever be possible to know for sure. And all that says to me is we have a long way to go before women and their pain can be fully understood.


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