Beijing, 16 July 2018
H.E. Li Keqiang, Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, H.E. Donald Tusk, President of the European Council, and H.E. Jean-Claude Juncker, President of the European Commission, met in Beijing on 16 July 2018 for the 20th China-EU Summit. Premier Li and President Juncker jointly attended the China-EU Business Roundtable.
1. On the occasion of this 20th China-EU Summit, the two sides celebrated the 15th anniversary of the China-EU Comprehensive Strategic Partnership. This has greatly enhanced the level of China-EU relations, with fruitful outcomes achieved in politics, economy, trade, culture, people-to-people exchanges and other fields. The Leaders reaffirmed their commitment to deepening their partnership for peace, growth, reform and civilisation, based on the principles of mutual respect, trust, equality and mutual benefit, by comprehensively implementing the China-EU 2020 Strategic Agenda for Cooperation.
2. As comprehensive strategic partners, China and the EU will reinforce the global dimension of their partnership in order to promote peace, security and sustainable development. Both sides reaffirmed their commitment to multilateralism and the rules-based international order with the United Nations at its core, and to uphold the UN Charter and international law, including the principles of sovereignty, territorial integrity and inviolability of borders. China and the EU are committed to upholding all three pillars of the UN system, namely peace and security, development, and human rights, and are committed to the peaceful settlement of international disputes in accordance with the principles of international law.
3. The two sides shared the view that dialogue and cooperation on foreign and security policy to meet common challenges is an important pillar of the China-EU Comprehensive Strategic Partnership. The EU reaffirmed its one-China policy.
4. Both sides commended the successful outcomes of the 8th China-EU High Level Strategic Dialogue, and agreed to continue to reinforce their consultations on foreign policy and security matters, including exchanges on Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Central Asia and Latin America, as well as disarmament and non-proliferation.
China and the EU support the various efforts to find a peaceful solution to the question of the Korean Peninsula. Since the beginning of the year, the situation on the Korean Peninsula has significantly eased. The two sides welcome the commitments made at the DPRK-US and inter-Korean summits, including the commitment to complete denuclearisation, and call upon all parties fully and comprehensively to implement the relevant UN Security Council resolutions.
China and the EU recalled that the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) is a key element of the global non-proliferation architecture and a significant diplomatic achievement endorsed unanimously by the UN Security Council in its Resolution 2231. Both sides welcomed the fact that the IAEA has again confirmed the continued adherence by Iran to its nuclear-related commitments. They reaffirm their commitment to the continued, full and effective implementation of the JCPOA.
On the peace process in the Middle East, both sides confirmed their support for a two-state solution, under which the two states live side by side in security within internationally recognized borders, with Jerusalem as their capital, and in accordance with the relevant United Nations resolutions.
China and the EU support a political solution to the Syrian conflict in line with UNSCR 2254 as this is the only path towards lasting peace and stability that would fully defeat terrorism in Syria. China and the EU call for increased humanitarian access and protection of civilians.
China and the EU welcome the efforts of the Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary General (SRSG) for Libya, Ghassan Salamé. In line with his Action Plan presented in September 2017, they renew their support for the stabilisation of Libya, in order to bring the country out of its long transition phase through an inclusive Libyan-led political reconciliation process within the framework of the Libyan Political Agreement, with elections to be held by 2018 based on an adequate constitutional framework.
China and the EU are committed to work together and co-ordinate closely on the peace process in Afghanistan, which should be Afghan-owned and Afghan-led, as well as on stability and security in order to facilitate Afghanistan's economic and social development and greater regional economic connectivity.
5. China, the EU and its Member States are parties to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and respect the maritime order based on international law. The EU welcomes the ongoing consultations between China and ASEAN countries aimed at the conclusion of an effective Code of Conduct (CoC) for the South China Sea. China and the EU call upon all relevant parties to engage in dialogue, to settle disputes peacefully, and to refrain from actions likely to increase tensions.
6. China and the EU will maintain high-level exchanges on security and defence policy, strengthen their communication and facilitate cooperation through policy dialogue mechanisms, actively promote training and seminars for personnel, and maintain the momentum of cooperation in such areas as anti-piracy escort missions and international peacekeeping.
7. China and the EU agreed to conduct exchanges on human rights at the bilateral and international level on the basis of equality and mutual respect, including in the context of UN human rights mechanisms. Both sides welcomed the holding of their Human Rights Dialogue in China in July.
8. The two sides are strongly committed to fostering an open world economy, improving trade and investment liberalisation and facilitation, resisting protectionism and unilateralism, and making globalisation more open, balanced, inclusive, and beneficial to all. Both sides firmly supported the rules-based, transparent, non-discriminatory, open and inclusive multilateral trading system with the WTO as its core and are committed to complying with existing WTO rules. They are also committed to cooperating on the reform of the WTO to help it meet new challenges and establish a joint working group on WTO reform, chaired at Vice-Ministerial level, to this end.
9. The two sides recognised the important role that the High-Level Economic and Trade Dialogue has played in guiding and promoting the development of China-EU economic and trade relations. The EU took note of China's recent commitments to improving market access and the investment environment, strengthening intellectual property rights and expanding imports, and looks forward to their full implementation as well as further measures. The two sides committed to ensuring a level playing field and mutually beneficial cooperation in bilateral trade and investment, and will work together to solve the market access issues facing businesses on both sides.
10. The two sides will continue to forge synergies between China's Belt and Road Initiative and the EU's initiatives, including the EU Investment Plan and extended Trans-European Transport Networks, and to promote cooperation in hardware and software connectivity through interoperable maritime, land and air transport, energy and digital networks. The two sides stressed that this cooperation should improve the economic, social, fiscal, financial and environmental sustainability of Europe-Asia connectivity. Such cooperation should abide by the shared principles of market rules, transparency, open procurement and a level playing field for all investors, and comply with established international norms and standards, respective international obligations, as well as the law of the countries benefitting from the projects, while taking into account their policies and individual situations.
11. The two sides welcomed the progress achieved under the China-EU Connectivity Platform and the successful holding of the third Chair's Meeting, the third Working Group on Connectivity, and the third meeting of the investment and financing cooperation expert group. The two sides will seek to expedite implementation of the agreed pilot projects in consultation with EU Member States and stakeholders on both sides. Both sides agreed to implement the Near-term Action Plan of the China-EU Connectivity Platform adopted by the third Chair's Meeting and the formulation of an annual work plan to further promote infrastructure connectivity between China and the EU.
12. Both sides welcomed the signing of the documents relating to the establishment of the China-EU Co-investment Fund, and the launch of the first co-investment under the Fund.
13. The two sides view the ongoing Investment Agreement negotiations as a top priority and a key project towards establishing and maintaining an open, predictable, fair and transparent business environment for their respective investors. Both sides welcome the exchange of market access offers which should bring the negotiation into a new phase and are committed to accelerate the discussions of both the joint text and the market access offers.
14. Both sides agree to accelerate the negotiation of the Agreement on the Cooperation on, and Protection of, Geographical Indications. They commit to substantially progress at the next round to be held on 25-27 July 2018 and to conclude the negotiation by the end of October.
15. The two sides agreed to launch a joint feasibility study on deepening cooperation in the wines and spirits sector. Both sides agreed that approximation of standards in these sectors would facilitate trade and would be beneficial for both.
16. Both sides agree that steel overcapacity is a global challenge that requires collective responses. Both sides agree to strengthen their cooperation in the Global Forum on Steel Excess Capacity and call for implementation of the G20 Hangzhou and Hamburg Summit consensus and the policy recommendations of the 2017 Ministerial Meeting of the Global Forum on Steel Excess Capacity. China and the EU agree to develop a new set of guidelines for government supported export credits within the International Working Group on Export Credits.
17. Both sides exchanged views on China's accession to the GPA. China committed to expedite the process of its accession. Both Parties agreed to work together towards this objective.
18. The two sides agreed to promote high food safety standards. To this end they reaffirmed the importance of adhering to international scientific standards. In this context, they are willing to conduct exchanges on the regionalisation principle, and are committed to promoting economic development by expanding market access for food products.
19. 双方强调推广与保护知识产权对于创新与可持续发展的重要性，并承诺加强中欧知识产权对话，深化知识产权保护合作，并充分利用新的技术合作项目。双方欢迎“IP Key China”项目的成功启动以及《中欧海关知识产权合作行动计划（2018－2020）》的签署。双方同意在打击知识产权侵权行为方面加强合作，尤其在双方均认可的优先领域加强合作。
19. The two sides underlined the importance for innovation and sustainable development of promoting and enforcing Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), and pledged to deepen the China-EU Dialogue on IPR, to strengthen their collaboration in IPR protection, and to make full use of new technical cooperation projects. They welcomed the successful launch of IP Key China and the signature of the Action Plan Concerning China-EU Customs Cooperation on IPR (2018-2020). The two sides agreed to reinforce their joint efforts to fight IPR infringements, in particular in mutually agreed priority areas.
20. The two sides will continue to implement the Agreement on Cooperation and Mutual Administrative Assistance in Customs Matters and the Strategic Framework for Customs Cooperation 2018-2020, and to make use of the China-EU Joint Customs Cooperation Committee (JCCC). Both parties committed to taking specific actions to promote trade safety, security and facilitation, while preventing illicit trade and fighting fraud, and to strengthening cooperation in areas such as IPR protection, Smart and Secure Trade Lanes, mutual recognition of Authorised Economic Operators, anti-fraud, solid waste inspection and trade statistics. They welcomed the signature of the Strategic Administrative Cooperation Arrangement including the Action Plan (2018-2020) on cooperation in combatting customs fraud.
21. China-EU cooperation on economic and financial issues through the China-EU Economic and Financial Dialogue is of strategic relevance. Both sides agree to strengthen their cooperation, including on regulatory matters and through coordination in multilateral fora. Similarly, China and the EU will use their Macroeconomic Dialogue as a basis for broader multilateral cooperation and for cooperation on issues related to macro-financial stability. On the basis of equivalence of public audit oversight systems between China and the EU, the two sides consider the ongoing adequacy assessment a priority and are working on strengthening bilateral cooperation in audit oversight.
22. Both sides committed to mutual access to industrial associations, standardisation bodies and R&D programmes in the field of the digital economy and agreed on the importance of achieving a favourable digital business environment that allows enterprises from both sides to fully integrate themselves and play a constructive role in the economy. The two sides will continue to hold the China-EU ICT Dialogue.
23. The two sides welcomed the progress achieved under the China-EU Cyber Taskforce and will continue to use it to increase mutual trust and understanding, with a view to enhancing policy exchanges and cooperation in the cyber area and jointly promoting the further development and implementation of the norms, rules and principles for responsible State behaviour in cyberspace as articulated in the 2010, 2013 and 2015 reports of the UN Groups of Governmental Experts.
24. Both sides welcomed the progress made at the fourth expert group meeting on the economic impact of cybersecurity challenges and digital economy held in May 2018 and looked forward to a further meeting.
25. The two sides agreed on the importance of closer China-EU cooperation on addressing the world drug problem. Both sides agreed to launch an annual China-EU Dialogue on Drugs, incorporating existing consultations on drug precursors. They welcomed the ongoing China-Europol strategic cooperation as an important step towards enhanced China-EU cooperation on law enforcement and transnational crimes.
26. The two sides committed to strengthening the China-EU Industrial Dialogue and Consultation Mechanism, by continuing and expanding cooperation in the fields of automotive, resource efficiency, shipbuilding, raw materials and Small and Medium Enterprises policy, and emphasised the importance of further cooperation on standardisation and of the transition to a digital economy.
27. Recalling that 2018 marks the 20th Anniversary of the signature of the China-EU Science and Technology Cooperation Agreement, the two sides welcomed recent progress in these areas, and through the China-EU Joint Steering Committee on Science and Technology Cooperation, the China-EU Innovation Cooperation and China-EU Space Cooperation Dialogues. The two sides will jointly implement the 2018-2020 Flagship Initiatives and explore a roadmap for further cooperation in areas such as basic research, frontier science and key societal challenges, building on the Co-Funding Mechanism. The two sides aim to improve the framework conditions for cooperation on innovation and promote more mutually beneficial, open and equal science, technology and innovation cooperation.
28. The two sides reaffirmed the importance of combatting climate change and welcomed the adoption of the Leaders' Statement on Climate Change and Clean Energy, which is annexed to this statement, and the Memorandum of Understanding to Enhance Cooperation on Emissions Trading between the Ministry of Ecology and Environment of the People's Republic of China and the European Commission. They committed to contributing actively to the conclusion of the Paris Agreement Work Programme at COP 24 in Katowice in order to ensure full and effective implementation of the Paris Agreement.
29. The leaders welcomed the increase in high-level contacts on environmental protection and natural resource conservation, and the importance of assuming greater leadership on the global environmental agenda, in particular on issues such as pollution prevention and control, biodiversity conservation, CITES implementation and enforcement and wildlife trafficking, and elimination of illegally harvested timber from the markets, as well as desertification and land degradation. The two sides welcomed the adoption by the UN General Assembly of a resolution titled "Towards a Global Pact for the Environment" and look forward to the presentation of a report by the Secretary General in the next General Assembly as a basis for further work. China and the EU will work together actively with a view to achieving the preservation of biodiversity. The EU welcomes China's commitment to organise COP 15 of the Convention on Biological Diversity in 2020, which should mark the adoption of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework.
30. The two sides agreed on the transition to a circular economy as a priority for their cooperation, recognising the contribution of resource efficiency to meeting climate and sustainable development targets and agreeing to enhance cooperation and support joint actions in this field. In that context the two sides signed the Memorandum of Understanding on Circular Economy Cooperation establishing a high level policy dialogue. Leaders confirmed the importance of strengthening China-EU cooperation on water in the framework of the China-EU Water Policy Dialogue, and acknowledged the role of China Europe Water Platform (CEWP) in supporting the implementation of the water-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
31. The two sides committed to strengthening regional policy cooperation and welcomed the 11th High-level Regional Policy Dialogue and the 13th China-EU Seminar on Regional Policy. The two sides committed to holding the high-level regional policy forum in turns at a mutually agreed frequency. The two sides reaffirmed their readiness to implement the Joint Declaration on the China-EU Partnership on Urbanisation through strengthening and expanding China-EU city-to-city cooperation.
32. The two sides will continue the annual China-EU Energy Dialogue and looked forward to the signing of the Joint Statement on the Implementation of China-EU Cooperation on Energy. The two sides reaffirmed their commitment to implementing the China-EU Roadmap on Energy Cooperation and to setting up the China-EU Energy Cooperation Platform (ECECP) to promote and support their energy cooperation and clean energy transition.
33. The two sides expressed their satisfaction with the successful China-EU Blue Year in 2017 and agreed on a Blue Partnership for the Oceans as a means to improve cooperation aiming at better ocean governance, sustainable fisheries, and a thriving maritime economy between China and the EU. Both sides also reaffirmed their commitment to fight against illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, and their shared interest in dialogue on matters related to the Law of the Sea and polar affairs.
34. The two sides welcomed the achievements of the 2012-2017 China-EU Disaster Risk Management cooperation project and further cooperation between China and the EU in the field of emergency management and disaster emergency humanitarian aid. They agreed to develop an China-EU dialogue on humanitarian assistance and to work together to reinforce the multilateral humanitarian system and its coordination mechanisms.
35. The two sides reaffirmed their shared understanding that state aid control and Fair Competition Review are important factors to ensure consumer welfare and to provide a level playing field and legal certainty for the business community. They expressed satisfaction about the outcome of the China-EU Dialogues on Competition, State Aid Control and Fair Competition Review and their role as platforms for promoting mutually beneficial cooperation. They will hold the next dialogues in Brussels at the appropriate time.
36. The two sides expressed satisfaction with the outcomes of the China-EU Legal Affairs Dialogue and its role as an important platform for promoting mutual understanding and mutually beneficial cooperation. The two sides agreed to hold the third dialogue in China later in 2018.
37. The two sides committed to further strengthening exchanges and cooperation in the fields of education, mobility of researchers, culture, media, youth, gender equality and sport through the High-level People-to-People Dialogue (HPPD). Both sides committed to working together to ensure the success of the fifth meeting in 2019.
38. Both parties welcomed the activities already held within the framework of the 2018 China-EU Tourism Year, and committed to further advancing the relevant activities within that framework, facilitating tourism cooperation and two-way people-to-people exchanges.
39. Both parties will press ahead with the parallel negotiations on the second phase of the China-EU Mobility and Migration Dialogue (MMD) roadmap, namely on an agreement on visa facilitation and an agreement on cooperation in combating illegal migration.
40. China and the EU propose to improve the governance of migration and providing comprehensive responses to displacement and recognise the need to develop tools and institutional structures accordingly. The two sides look forward to the outcome of the UN process towards Global Compacts on Refugees and for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, both envisaged to be adopted in 2018.
41. Recent global developments have heightened the relevance of ASEM. In the spirit of the ASEM12 Summit's overall theme of "Global Partners for Global Challenges", China and the EU will work together to advance cooperation across ASEM's three pillars (political, economic and social/cultural), support rules-based multilateralism, and develop connectivity cooperation based on the definition and scope of work agreed at the ASEM Foreign Ministers Meeting in November 2017. China and the EU welcomed the start of work by the ASEM Pathfinder Group (APGC) and look forward to reaching an agreement that will contribute to better connectivity between Europe and Asia.
42. The two sides committed to supporting the G20, as the premier forum of international economic cooperation, in continuing to play its active role in international economic and financial governance. The two sides agree to implement G20 commitments to support strong, sustainable, balanced and inclusive growth. The two sides stand ready to step up communication and coordination in preparation for the G20 Buenos Aires Summit and to jointly contribute to a positive and productive Summit.
43. Both sides will promote mutual understanding and share experience on international development cooperation through enhanced exchanges, and make joint efforts to implement the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda.
44. The two sides agreed to hold the fourth review meeting of the China-EU 2020 Strategic Agenda for Cooperation in Brussels in 2019. The two sides committed to starting discussions on a new cooperation agenda to further expand and deepen exchanges and cooperation between China and the EU beyond 2020.
China-EU Leaders' Statement on Climate Change and Clean Energy
Beijing, 16 July 2018
1. China and the EU consider climate action and the clean energy transition an imperative more important than ever. They confirm their commitments under the historic 2015 Paris Agreement and step up their cooperation to enhance its implementation.
2. Climate change is exerting increasing stress on ecosystems and infrastructure to the point of threatening hard-won developmental gains. Its detrimental impacts on water, food and national security have become a multiplying factor of social and political fragility, and constitute a root cause for instability, including the displacement of people. The increasing impacts of climate change require a decisive response, in view of striving for the common good of all humankind.
3. China and the EU are committed to show firm determination and work together with all stakeholders to combat climate change, implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and promote global low greenhouse gas emissions, climate resilient and sustainable development. They underline that fighting climate change and promoting the global clean and low-carbon energy transition, especially towards sustainable, affordable, reliable and modern energy services, are mutually reinforcing objectives to achieve sustainable, secure and competitive economies. They also underline that tackling climate change and reforming our energy systems are significant drivers of job creation, investment opportunities and economic growth.
4. Through the China-EU Joint Statement on Climate Change in 2015, the China-EU Roadmap on Energy Cooperation in 2016, and the present Statement, China and the EU commit to significantly intensify their political, technical, economic and scientific cooperation on climate change and clean energy, in view of the necessary world-wide transformation to a resource efficient, sustainable, low greenhouse gas emission and climate resilient economy and society, in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication.
5. China and the EU recognise the importance of developing global free trade and investment, and promoting the multilateral rule-based system to allow the full development of the low greenhouse gas emission economy with all its benefits.
Advancing the UNFCCC Process
6. China and the EU welcome the Paris Agreement, adopted under the Convention to enhance its implementation, with its ambitious goals, its inclusive nature, and its reflection of equity, and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances. China and the EU consider the Paris Agreement as an historic achievement further accelerating the irreversible global low greenhouse gas emission and climate resilient development. The Paris Agreement is proof that with shared political will and mutual trust, multilateralism can succeed in building fair and effective solutions to the most critical global problems of our time. China and the EU underline their highest political commitment to the effective implementation of the Paris Agreement in all its aspects, including, inter alia, mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology development and transfer, capacity-building and transparency of actions and support. Stepping up action will provide both sides with significant opportunities for modernising their economies, enhancing competitiveness, and ensuring socio-economic benefits of increased clean energy access.
7. China and the EU welcome the rapid signature and entry into force of the Paris Agreement, as a testimony of the international community's unwavering determination to confront this common challenge and as a clear signal to industry and investors, as confirmed by the Marrakech Action Proclamation for our Climate and Sustainable Development, adopted on the occasion of the UN Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP 22) in November 2016, and by the Fiji Momentum for Implementation, adopted at COP 23 in November 2017.
8. China and the EU are determined to forge ahead with further policies and measures for the effective implementation of their respective nationally determined contributions (NDCs) and lead the clean energy transition. They call on all Parties to uphold the Paris Agreement, to implement their NDCs and to strengthen efforts over time, in accordance with the purpose and provisions of the Agreement.
9. China and the EU will cooperate with other Parties to achieve, at COP 24 in Poland in 2018, a successful and meaningful outcome under the agreed work programme to prepare for the implementation of the Paris Agreement. China and the EU look forward to working with the Fijian Presidency of the UN Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP 23) as the first ever for the Pacific Region, and the Polish Presidency of COP 24 to prepare the ground for the completion of this work programme, including through the development of a comprehensive negotiating text, as well as to prepare for a successful, constructive and inclusive 2018 Talanoa Dialogue in accordance with the decisions taken in Paris.
10. The EU fully stands behind the collective mobilization goal of developed countries to jointly provide USD 100 billion annually by 2020, and urges other developed country Parties to stand behind this collective goal. China and the EU recall that on climate finance, developed countries shall provide financial resources to assist developing countries with respect to both mitigation and adaptation in continuation of their existing obligations under the Convention. Other countries are encouraged to provide or continue to provide such support voluntarily. Prior to 2025 the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement shall set a new collective quantified goal from a floor of USD 100 billion per year, taking into account the needs and priorities of developing countries.
11. China and the EU emphasise the urgency and priority of accelerating the implementation of pre-2020 commitments and actions to build the mutual trust amongst Parties, in particular the ratification and implementation of the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol.
12. China and the EU will communicate, by 2020, long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies as foreseen in the Paris Agreement.
Collaborating in Other Multilateral Fora
13. China and the EU emphasize the global vision to make financial flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emission and climate-resilient development. China and the EU agree on the need for sustainable investment and green finance to drive the transition to a low greenhouse gas emission and climate resilient economy. They recall the 2016 recommendations of the G20 on Green Finance developed under China's leadership, which are already being implemented.
14. China and the EU will work together with other Parties to promote the universal ratification of the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on the phase down of HFCs. The Kigali Amendment is a crucial advance at global level in the area of climate change and environmental protection. Through joint action, China and the EU will facilitate a smooth transition to environment-friendly alternatives used in heating, refrigeration and air conditioning systems.
15. China and the EU will reinforce their cooperation in ICAO and in the IMO to ensure that aviation and shipping contribute to combating climate change, including both through domestic measures and international cooperation.
Promoting Concrete Bilateral Cooperation
16. China and the EU are confident that their collaboration on climate change and clean energy will become a main pillar of their bilateral partnership, including in their economic relations. In particular, China and the EU will further strengthen their bilateral cooperation in the following areas:
(1) Long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies: China and the EU agree to cooperate on the formulation of mid-century, long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies through regular technical dialogues including mitigation and adaptation solutions, capacity-building and climate legislation.
(2) Emissions Trading: China and the EU agree on the importance of emissions trading as a cost-effective climate policy tool and agree to further enhance and reinforce bilateral cooperation activities on emissions trading in the context of reforming the EU-Emissions Trading System and the launch of the national Emissions Trading System in China in 2017, allowing for the sharing of experience and expertise among the two largest carbon markets in the world. China and the EU therefore strongly welcome the launch of a new bilateral cooperation project, building on the previous initiative, further deepening exchanges on their respective experiences with the implementation and development of emissions trading. Both sides also agree to expand their collaboration to further facilitate the implementation and development of emissions trading systems, including through technical workshops between carbon market experts with a view to exchanging experience and expertise on how to develop, run and review Emissions Trading Systems and, in the longer run, consider ways to further cooperate together.
(3) Energy Efficiency: China and the EU agree to extend their bilateral collaboration on energy efficiency, especially on energy labelling, minimum energy performance standards for appliances, and energy performance of buildings, with the aim to align requirements according to international standards.
(4) Clean Energy: China and the EU agree to exchange best-practices and experiences on clean energy production, such as from renewables or highly efficient combined heat and power (CHP), its successful integration into the grid, and on energy regulation and market design, including the integration of clean energy sources through market-based support mechanisms. China and the EU reaffirm their willingness to strengthen their collaboration on smarter and more resilient energy infrastructure and storage capacity, also important for the integration into grid and large-scale utilization of renewable energy. China and the EU will discuss possible solutions, including interconnecting energy networks, to meet the global power demand with clean and green alternatives. China and the EU underline the importance of upfront collaboration and continued cooperation in multilateral energy fora, notably the G20 and the Clean Energy Ministerial.
(5) Low-emission Transport: China and the EU agree that low-emission transport is a key component of the necessary broader shift towards low greenhouse gas emission societies and economies. They agree on the launch of expert dialogues on fuel economy and CO2 emission standards for light and heavy duty vehicles, including on the deployment of low and zero emission vehicles.
(6) Low-carbon Cities Cooperation: Recognising that cities and towns are key actors in the fight to mitigate climate change and to adapt to it, China and the EU express their willingness to reinforce the China-EU Low-carbon Cities Partnership, by mobilising resources to allow Chinese cities to benefit from EU technical and managerial experience. China and the EU engage in fostering the development of more city pairings between Chinese and European cities and local and regional governments, with a strong focus on sustainable urbanisation.
(7) Climate-related Technology Cooperation: China and the EU recognise the global dimension of the technological and scientific collaboration, underlining the benefit of multilateral cooperation. They reaffirm their commitment to Mission Innovation and its aim to accelerate the clean energy transition. They agree to enhance their collaboration on climate-related scientific research and cooperation on technology innovation, including the development and deployment of low greenhouse gas emission technologies such as carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS), and adaptation solutions.
(8) Investment in climate and clean energy projects: Recognising the need for finance for climate and clean energy projects, China and the EU welcome the Memorandum of Understanding signed by Chinese Ministry of Finance and European Investment Bank in 2016 to broaden the scope of the EIB investment in China in sectors such as low greenhouse gas emission public transport, climate resilience, energy efficiency, renewable energy and forestry.
(9) Cooperation with other Developing Countries: China and the EU will explore possibilities for triangular cooperation on promoting sustainable energy access, energy efficiency and low greenhouse gas emission development in other developing countries and assist them to increase the capacities in combating climate change, with particular focus on least developed countries, small island developing states and African countries, as reflected in these countries' national climate plans, strategies and policies.