纽约时报 | 让人又爱又恨的“PowerPoint”

Our love-hate relationship with PowerPoint 让人又爱又恨的“Powe […]

Our love-hate relationship with PowerPoint

At some point in their career, everyone will find themselves sat in a darkened room, eyes squinting at a large white screen in front of them, blinking, as slide after slide whizzes past.


Microsoft PowerPoint is the world’s most ubiquitous presentation tool. Some figures suggest that this all-conquering presentation software is installed on more than a billion computers worldwide and that there may be up to a staggering 30 million PowerPoint presentations created every day.


Some users are such passionate devotees they can’t abandon it C even when it comes to managing their free time.


Recent graduate Ben Velzian was swiping through profiles on Tinder and was asked out on a date. While trying to decide where they should meet, Velzian sent his prospective date a PowerPoint presentation full of options of things to do. “I didn’t give him any warning or anything which is perhaps why he didn’t take it in the way I’d expected… he didn’t say anything, he just blocked me,” Velzian says.

刚刚毕业不久的本・维尔兹安(Ben Velzian)刷Tinder(交友约会应用程序)时收到了一条约会请求。在决定见面地点时,他给对方发去了一份PowerPoint演示文稿,里面罗列了各种各样的选项。"我没有事先提出任何警告,可能正因为这样,他才没有像我预期的那样接受幻灯片……他什么也没说,直接把我屏蔽了。"维尔兹安说。

So there’s no denying it’s an addictive, powerful tool C but is it past its sell-by-date, as some critics suggest?


‘Billions and billions’


It emerged from software company Forethought Inc., a Silicon Valley hothouse, in the 1980s. The program, initially named Presenter, was first released C on the Apple Macintosh C in 1987. Bob Gaskins was the man behind it.

PowerPoint在上世纪80年代诞生于一家名叫Forethought的硅谷软件公司。这款软件最早名叫Presenter,是在1987年面向苹果Macintosh发布的。鲍勃・加斯金斯(Bob Gaskins)是它的发明人。

“I knew in the early 80s that there were as many as a billion, a thousand million presentation slides being made per year just in America,” Gaskins says, “but they were all made by hand and almost nobody was using computers to do so.


“It was clear to me that here was a huge application worth billions and billions of dollars a year that could be done on computers as soon as there was a revolution in the kinds of computers that we had.”


Gaskins was onto something, but it was a hard sell at the time. The software wouldn’t run on any existing personal computers. Anyone wanting to use it had to buy a new machine.


Even so, people bought personal computers for the first time in order to be able to use PowerPoint, says Wired magazine journalist and tech writer Russell Davies.

《连线》杂志(Wired)记者、科技写手罗素・戴维斯(Russell Davies)表示,即便如此,人们还是为了能使用PowerPoint而购买自己的第一台电脑。

“The cost of the computer plus the PowerPoint software was less than what they were spending annually on making slides.”


Democratising the workplace


Davies explains that before PowerPoint, people used slides, overhead projectors and acetate films to convey information to groups C but anyone creating a presentation had to send away to get their materials made. It took a long time to do, was difficult to make changes and because it was so expensive, only the most senior people in an organisation got to do it.


 “PowerPoint,” Davies says, “made it possible for everyone in an organisation to stand up and say their piece.”


But while PowerPoint revolutionised and democratised the way we work, it also had another unexpected result.


Around the same time as PowerPoint was gaining popularity, middle management was becoming massively criticised, says Matthew Fuller, professor of cultural studies at Goldsmiths at the University of London.

伦敦大学金史密斯学院文化研究教授马修・富勒(Matthew Fuller)表示,大约就在PowerPoint受到追捧的同时,中层管理人员则面临广泛批评。

Fuller suggests there’s a connection: because PowerPoint let more people share their ideas, it exposed the failings of middle management and inadvertently led to an exodus of people from these roles, he says. “Perhaps their ideas could be seen for the trivia they were, to some extent.”


Needs more slides


PowerPoint has empowered us C bringing creativity into offices and classrooms and has helped turn us all into presenters C but it’s also been accused of over-simplifying ideas and distracting us from clear thinking.


Sarah Kaplan is a management professor and ethnographer at the University of Toronto’s Rotman School of Management. Part of her job is to observe people as they work. She has noticed that, rather than people asking for new analysis or insights in meetings, they were asking for more PowerPoint slides.

萨拉・卡普兰(Sarah Kaplan)是多伦多大学鲁特曼管理学院管理学教授,也是一名人种志学者。她的一部分责任就是观察人们的工作。她注意到,人们不再在会议上索要各种分析,而是索要更多的PowerPoint幻灯片。

“I noticed that most people were making strategy by making PowerPoint,” she says. “The slide itself becomes the end goal as opposed to the ideas or the analyses that are embedded within it.”


Kaplan says that some CEOs, such as Amazon’s Jeff Bezos, have banned its use. “He felt, and I think many people feel, that PowerPoint became such an object of the process that they lost the ideas inside of it and that is the risk.”

卡普兰表示,有的CEO已经禁止使用PowerPoint,亚马逊CEO杰夫・贝佐斯(Jeff Bezos)就是其中之一。"他感觉人们过于看重PowerPoint,反而忽视了幻灯片所蕴含的思考,这蕴含着风险。我认为很多人都感觉到这种现象的存在。"

Tragic consequences


One such risk played out on January 28, 1986, when the Nasa space shuttle Challenger broke apart just 73 seconds into its flight, killing all seven crew members. This tragedy has been cited by one of the most renowned critics of slide-style presentations, American statistician and information designer Edward Tufte, as a vivid and terrible illustration of the dangers of this kind of presentation style.

其中一项风险发生在1986年1月28日。当时,美国国家航空航天局(NASA)的"挑战者"号航天飞机在发射73秒后解体,机上7名机组人员全部遇难。身为美国的一名统计学家和信息设计师,爱德华・塔夫特(Edward Tufte)是幻灯片演示模式最著名的批评者之一,他认为,这场悲剧以生动而可怕的方式展示了这种演讲风格的危险性。

The primary problem that brought down the space shuttle had been included within a slide presentation given to Nasa before the mission. But it was surrounded by so much other information, buried in a stack of bullet points, it was effectively hidden and therefore missed.


Russell Davies says Tufte’s argument goes like this: slide-style visual presentations allow unstructured information to appear informative, so it looks like a set of bullet points has meaning, when that may only be an appearance. In other words, it makes it look like we know what we are talking about even if we don’t.


But for all its detractors, and hi-tech competition C it seems to have considerable staying power. PowerPoint is one of the most successful, enduring and influential pieces of software ever invented.


And so, in darkened rooms all across the world we will continue to sit through health and safety courses, sales pitches and conferences and lectures in which people valiantly attempt to condense what they know into just a few slides, with a smattering of bullet points and the odd cheesy gag to keep people awake.


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