纽约时报 | “手机里的恶魔”?硅谷父母对电子产品说不

A Dark Consensus About Screens and Kids Begins to Emerg […]

A Dark Consensus About Screens and Kids Begins to Emerge in Silicon Valley

SAN FRANCISCO ― The people who are closest to a thing are often the most wary of it. Technologists know how phones really work, and many have decided they don’t want their own children anywhere near them.


A wariness that has been slowly brewing is turning into a regionwide consensus: The benefits of screens as a learning tool are overblown, and the risks for addiction and stunting development seem high. The debate in Silicon Valley now is about how much exposure to phones is O.K.


“Doing no screen time is almost easier than doing a little,” said Kristin Stecher, a former social computing researcher married to a Facebook engineer. “If my kids do get it at all, they just want it more.”

“不看屏幕比花一点点时间看屏幕要容易,”嫁给了一位Facebook工程师的前社会计算研究者克里斯廷・施特歇尔(Kristin Stecher)表示。“如果我的孩子有使用屏幕的时间,那他们只会想要更多。”

Ms. Stecher, 37, and her husband, Rushabh Doshi, researched screen time and came to a simple conclusion: they wanted almost none of it in their house. Their daughters, ages 5 and 3, have no screen time “budget,” no regular hours they are allowed to be on screens. The only time a screen can be used is during the travel portion of a long car ride (the four-hour drive to Tahoe counts) or during a plane trip.

37岁的施特歇尔和丈夫鲁沙巴・多希(Rushabh Doshi)一直在对使用屏幕的时间长短进行研究,他们得出了一个简单的结论:他们基本上不希望家里有人使用屏幕。他们有两个女儿,一个五岁,一个三岁,两个孩子完全没有使用屏幕时间的“预算”,也就是说,他们完全不允许两个孩子有定期使用屏幕的时间。唯一能使用屏幕的时候,是在长时间坐车期间(开车四小时去塔霍湖的路上),或是在坐飞机的时候。

Recently she has softened this approach. Every Friday evening the family watches one movie.There is a looming issue Ms. Stecher sees in the future: Her husband, who is 39, loves video games and thinks they can be educational and entertaining. She does not.


“We’ll cross that when we come to it,” said Ms. Stecher, who is due soon with a boy.


Some of the people who built video programs are now horrified by how many places a child can now watch a video.


Asked about limiting screen time for children, Hunter Walk, a venture capitalist who for years directed product for YouTube at Google, sent a photo of a potty training toilet with an iPad attached and wrote: “Hashtag ‘products we didn’t buy.’”

当被问及限制孩子使用屏幕的时间时,在谷歌(Google)为YouTube进行产品指导的风险投资人亨特・沃克(Hunter Walk)发来了一张图片,上面显示着一个带有iPad训练孩子上厕所的便盆,他写道:“#‘我们不认同的产品’”。

Athena Chavarria, who worked as an executive assistant at Facebook and is now at Mark Zuckerberg’s philanthropic arm, the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, said: “I am convinced the devil lives in our phones and is wreaking havoc on our children.”

曾在Facebook担任行政助理,如今在马克・扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)的慈善机构“陈-扎克伯格行动”(Chan Zuckerberg Initiative)任职的阿西纳・查瓦里亚(Athena Chavarria)说:“我深信我们的手机里有恶魔,并且这个恶魔正在对我们的孩子造成伤害。”

Ms. Chavarria did not let her children have cellphones until high school, and even now bans phone use in the car and severely limits it at home.


She said she lives by the mantra that the last child in the class to get a phone wins. Her daughter did not get a phone until she started ninth grade.


“Other parents are like, ‘Aren’t you worried you don’t know where your kids are when you can’t find them?’” Ms. Chavarria said. “And I’m like, ‘No, I do not need to know where my kids are every second of the day.’”For longtime tech leaders, watching how the tools they built affect their children has felt like a reckoning on their life and work.


Among those is Chris Anderson, the former editor of Wired and now the chief executive of a robotics and drone company. He is also the founder of GeekDad.com.

在这些人当中,就有《连线》(Wired)前主编克里斯・安德森(Chris Anderson)。他目前是一家机器人和无人机公司的首席执行官,并且创办了GeekDad.com。

“On the scale between candy and crack cocaine, it’s closer to crack cocaine,” Mr. Anderson said of screens.


Technologists building these products and writers observing the tech revolution were naïve, he said.


“We thought we could control it,” Mr. Anderson said. “And this is beyond our power to control. This is going straight to the pleasure centers of the developing brain. This is beyond our capacity as regular parents to understand.”


He has five children and 12 tech rules. They include: no phones until the summer before high school, no screens in bedrooms, network-level content blocking, no social media until age 13, no iPads at all and screen time schedules enforced by Google Wifi that he controls from his phone. Bad behavior? The child goes offline for 24 hours.


“I didn’t know what we were doing to their brains until I started to observe the symptoms and the consequences,” Mr. Anderson said.“This is scar tissue talking. We’ve made every mistake in the book, and I think we got it wrong with some of my kids,” Mr. Anderson said. “We glimpsed into the chasm of addiction, and there were some lost years, which we feel bad about.”


His children attended private elementary school, where he saw the administration introduce iPads and smart whiteboards, only to “descend into chaos and then pull back from it all.”


This idea that Silicon Valley parents are wary about tech is not new. The godfathers of tech expressed these concerns years ago, and concern has been loudest from the top.


Tim Cook, the C.E.O. of Apple, said earlier this year that he would not let his nephew join social networks. Bill Gates banned cellphones until his children were teenagers, and Melinda Gates wrote that she wished they had waited even longer. Steve Jobs would not let his young children near iPads.

苹果(Apple)CEO蒂姆・库克(Tim Cook)今年早些时候表示,他不会让自己的侄子上社交网络。比尔・盖茨(Bill Gates)禁止他的孩子在十几岁之前用手机,而梅琳达・盖茨(Melinda Gates)曾写道,她希望他们可以再晚一些给孩子手机。史蒂夫・乔布斯(Steve Jobs)不会让自己年幼的孩子靠近iPad。

But in the last year, a fleet of high-profile Silicon Valley defectors have been sounding alarms in increasingly dire terms about what these gadgets do to the human brain. Suddenly rank-and-file Silicon Valley workers are obsessed. No-tech homes are cropping up across the region. Nannies are being asked to sign no-phone contracts.


Those who have exposed their children to screens try to talk them out of addiction by explaining how the tech works.


John Lilly, a Silicon Valley-based venture capitalist with Greylock Partners and the former C.E.O. of Mozilla, said he tries to help his 13-year-old son understand that he is being manipulated by those who built the technology.

在硅谷工作的Greylock Partners公司风险投资人约翰・利利(John Lilly)表示,他试图帮助自己13岁的儿子理解,他受到了那些打造这些科技产品的人的操纵。利利曾是摩斯拉(Mozilla)的前CEO。

“I try to tell him somebody wrote code to make you feel this way ― I’m trying to help him understand how things are made, the values that are going into things and what people are doing to create that feeling,” Mr. Lilly said. “And he’s like, ‘I just want to spend my 20 bucks to get my Fortnite skins.’”


And there are those in tech who disagree that screens are dangerous. Jason Toff, 32, who ran the video platform Vine and now works for Google, lets his 3-year-old play on an iPad, which he believes is no better or worse than a book. This opinion is unpopular enough with his fellow tech workers that he feels there is now “a stigma.”

此外,科技业还有一些人,不同意屏幕很危险的观点。32岁的杰森・托夫(Jason Toff)曾运营视频平台Vine,如今是谷歌的员工,他会让自己三岁的儿子玩iPad。在他看来,iPad和一本书没什么差别。这种观点在他的科技业同行那里不怎么受欢迎,以至于他觉得现在这是“一种不光彩的感觉”。

“One reaction I got just yesterday was, ‘Doesn’t it worry you that all the major tech execs are limiting screen time?’” Mr. Toff said. “And I was like, ‘Maybe it should, but I guess I’ve always been skeptical of norms.’ People are just scared of the unknown.”


“It’s contrarian,” Mr. Toff said. “But I feel like I’m speaking for a lot of parents that are afraid of speaking out loud for fear of judgment.”


He said he thinks back to his own childhood growing up watching a lot of TV. “I think I turned out O.K.,” Mr. Toff said.


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