1. The euro-zone crisis resurfaced amid worries that Spain will be unable to keep its public finances under control and will require a bail-out at some point.
// bail 摆脱困境、保释 // bail-out 经济上的紧急援助
2. It’s an insanely great honor to get published in such a prestigious magazine.
3. Premier Wen vowed to crack down on housing speculation amid criticisms that soaring home prices put an intolerably heavy burden on average Chinese.
4. strain public finances 使公共财政紧张
at strain 努力地 // on the strain 紧张地
put/impose a strain on/upon 使紧张、经受考验、使极劳累
at full strain 竭尽全力，全力以赴
without strain 毫不费力地，自然地
5. To put the 3 million annual startup jobs in context, the US economy today has a labor force in excess of 150 million workers.
// put … in context of 以。。。为背景、为前提、为假设
6. Obviously, a policy strategy of preserving the status quo is not, and never has been, reality – based.
7. University ranking is not, and has never been, a reliable indicator of the performance of individual universities across the nation.
8. Last week Apple unveiled iPad, which is an obvious product for the company in the digital age.
// obvious 明显的，显而易见的，平淡无奇的，显著的
9. Google is accused of abusing its dominance in its general search engine to shift some specific markets in its favor.
10. Call these diseconomies of scale if you must, but it’s patently untrue that existing firms are the source of new jobs in America.
// you must = you have to 一定，必须，不。。。不成
// it’s patently untrue that … … 很明显不是事实，不是真的
11. hi-tech industrial jobs // manufacturing industrial jobs
12. What the new and improved industrial planners don’t understand is that …
13. Clearly, scaling is not a skill America forgot.
14. Andy Grove’s misguided essay won’t get him kicked out of the Silicon Valley Hall of Fame.
15. Grove / Gates / Jobs / Ellison – Oracle
16. Gone are the golden era when college graduates can land a decent job effortlessly/with ease.
17. golden era 黄金时代
the Golden State = California
18. weigh down 使下沉，压倒，使负重，在价值、重要性或影响上超过、比。。。重、加分量//Do you know if a piece of lead will weigh down an equal bulk of iron?
19. lip service 口惠而实不至，只是嘴上说说，刷嘴皮子
20. University of California — UC
加利福尼亚大学——加州大学系统【UC Berkeley 伯克利分校、UCLA洛杉矶分校、UCSD 圣地亚哥分校】
New findings suggest that genes may play a significant role in determining how successful a person is in life.
22. An undetermined number of passengers got killed in this accident. = This accident claimed lives of an unidentified /unknown number of passengers.
23. metamorphose 变质、变形、使变成（into）
24. //predisposition 倾向、意向、偏好、素质、天性
// disposition 性格、脾气、气质、安排、清除、去掉
// genetic predisposition 遗传素质
at/in one’s disposition 随某人支配
show/have a disposition to do 有。。。的倾向，露出。。。的意思
25. social animals 社会性动物，群居性动物
self-control = regulation
a sense of belonging 归属感
a sense of purpose 目标感、使命感、目的性
26. Researchers said that genetically influenced characteristic traits like self-control, determination, sociability can make the difference between success and failure.
27. Taking a positive mental attitude or not may mean the difference between success and failure.
28. participants = subjects = volunteers = testees
29. The subscriber you called has powered off.
The subscriber you dialed is out of service.
30. I am subject to you tonight on.
31. … depend on how they perceive life, themselves and others
32. Record labels from overseas may be perceived as potential threats to domestic ones.
// record label 唱片公司 // registered trademark 注册商标
33. characteristic 典型、特性、特色；典型的，特有，与众不同的
// characteristics 性格、特质、特色
// build socialism with Chinese characteristics
//successful characteristics 成功的性格，成功的特质
34. These traits are important because it affects an individual ability to continue learning and developing, thus increasing their chances for later achievement.
35. Ever since the ancient Greeks, people have debated the nature of a good life and the nature of a virtuous life.
36. in/by virtue of 因为、由于、凭借、依靠。。。
have/with the virtue of 具有。。。的优点
virtue and vice 善与恶
37. Teachers should impress the children with the virtue of always telling the truth.
38. virtue --- virtuous --- virtuous cycle
vice --- vicious --- vicious cycle
39. Bates noted that while psychologists have previously thought that family and environment were largely responsible for an individual’s ideas or psychological well-being, the latest findings “highlight a much more powerful influence from genetics.”
40. Bates says that a person’s sense of purpose is critical in determining future success, and that people wanting to thrive in live should focus their thoughts on making a difference.
41. Psychological capital is an important positive psychological capacity. It can be defined an individual’s positive psychological state to face tasks, performance and success.
1. Imperfect though it is, New York’s attempt to improve its school deserves applause.
2. model = role model 榜样
broken windows 破窗理论、破窗效应——勿以恶小而为之
crack down on 对…采取严厉措施，制裁、镇压
3. …, showing that a seemingly hopeless situation can be turned around.
4. Hopeless is how many people feel about America’s public schools, particularly in the dodgier parts of big cities, where graduation rates are shockingly low and many fail to achieve basic levels of literacy and numeracy.
5. make the name of sb 使某人成功，声名大振
// aspiration 渴望、抱负、志向、野心、吸引术
// aspirant 有抱负的人、野心家、上进的、有野心的
// careerist = highflyer=aspirant
6. Hopeless is how many college students treat their parents.
7. shockingly low = alarmingly low = distressingly low
8. And just as New York pointed the way on fighting crime, under another mayor, Michael Bloomberg, it is now emerging as a model for school reform.
// just as 正如
//point the way on doing 为…指明道路
// Bloomberg 布隆伯格
9. Ａ sizeable portion of the world is just emerging from the economic decline.
10. Schools that fail will not be tolerated.
11. do the trick（for）= go places = make a hit 获得成功，有效果
12. This is the culmination of a series of reform that began with …
13. Even before the “report cards”, there have been impressive signs of improvement, including higher test scores and better graduation rates.
14. There are impressive signs that he has come to believe English matters much.
15. Mr. Bloomberg has not been as brave with schools as Mr. Giuliani was with crime.
16. shop around 逐店进行选购，货比三家
17. voucher 代金券，优惠券
18. On the other hand, even supporters of school choice, like this newspaper, have to admit it is proving hard to sell.
19. make a big push to do 大力推行，大力做…
20. chart school 契约学校，特许学校
21. Against this, Bloomberg has provided an example of what a mayor with control of schools can do even without embracing such controversial ideas.
// embrace 拥抱、欣然接受、包括、涉及
// controversial 有争议的，引起争论的
22. merit pay 绩效工资，绩效奖
carrot and stick 胡萝卜加大棒，软硬兼施的}
pay rise 加薪，涨工资
23. … he has put in place a system based on transparency, accountability and competition that he hopes will achieve much the same effect.
// put in place 到位，落实到位，正在实施
24. Unless bad schools are indeed closed, his scheme will be as much good as blackboard with no chalk.
25. For …, read …. 一一对应，for A read B
26. provide useful insight into 提供对…有用的见解，了解
// police captain 警官，警长
// precinct 管理区，管辖区
27. wage 进行、发动、从事、开展、进行、工资、代价、报偿
// wage a reform on sth 开展一项改革
28. patronage 惠顾、庇护、保护、支援、赞助、恩惠、任免权
// under the patronage of 在…庇护下，承…栽培
// take someone under one’s patronage 庇护某人
29. dispense 分配，免除，执行，豁免
30. pack with 塞进，挤进，塞满了东西，充斥
31. All over the world companies are putting together networks of data centers packed with thousands of servers, known as “computing clouds”.
32. This proves to be the best way to read the book since it is packed with valuable information.
33. But mayoral control alone is no guarantee of success.
34. … alone is no guarantee of success …
35. Impressive academic performance alone is no guarantee of success in current China.
36. The cheep price alone is no guarantee of landing this contract.
37. This involves multiple factors.
38. it is by no means certain that // it is all too clear that …
// it is far from certain that …
39. It is far from certain that Congress will hold them accountable for these mistakes.
40. People’s views on this issue are far from equal.
41. tamper with (用非法手段)影响、左右、收买、干预、干涉、篡改
1. Small dogs generally live longer than big dogs.
= Small-sized dogs typically live longer than big-sized dogs.
= Small dogs outlive big dogs.
= Small dogs have a longer life span than big dogs
= Small dogs have a longer expectancy than big dogs.
2. Dear baby, if you can survive, please remember I love you.
3. This company has evolved into a monopolistic giant.
4. evolve into = develop into = emerge as
5. Research on animals from ants to apes has found that different individuals have different personalities.
= Research into animals ranging from ants to apes has revealed / concluded / shown / demonstrated / confirmed that personalities differ/vary from individual to individual.
= Different people have different opinions on this issue.
=Folks are split / divided on this issue.
= This is a divisive issue. = This issue splits people apart.
= People’s opinions on this issue are far from equal.
6. People are divided on this aggressive marketing strategy.
7. Adolescents’ aggressive behaviors generally stem from what they experienced in their childhood.
8. Biologists have proposed that temperaments evolved along with life history.
9. Some researchers have proposed that they evolved independently.
= Some scientists have suggested that they had different origins.
= Some scientists have found that they did not share origins.
10. The proposed ban on genetically modified crops has drawn criticisms from the corporate world.
11. …, the thinking goes, … 这种想法认为
12. run/carry out/conduct/ do/perform experiments on…
13. Japanese aggression into China is justified from an evolutionary perspective.
14. These researchers came up with a bold idea that all the creation shared the same origin.
15. come up with an idea = put forward an idea = present an idea
16. Our newly launched/unveiled/introduced/ product targets not average consumers but business.
17. A growing number of U.S. companies are becoming benefit corporations, a new type of business that puts social values ahead of chasing the bottom line. (put A ahead of B)
18. Stability is put above all else in China.
// … be put above all else 置于其他所有之上，是重中之重
19. a diversity of = a variety of 各种各样的
of all stripes 形形色色的，
20. Experts of all stripes have proposed a diversity of scheme on how to put crime under control.
21. Simply put, … = Simply stated, … 简而言之
22. Governments at Federal, state and local levels have made a big push to preserve ethnic diversity.
23. Data leakage is grave/severe/serious in this country.
24. collect data = gather data = accumulate data
25. defy // 对…满不在乎，不顾、违抗、反对
IBM is the only tech giant that defied gravity in the economic crash.
The English weather defies forecast.
They believe it essential to defy convention.
The plane defied the laws of gravity.
26. A host of similarly sized companies in this densely populated area are closely/intimately linked in business.
27. back issue / current issue
28. select = choose carefully
29. His temper is predictably unpredictable.
30. His precise prediction is indicative of his superb professional skills.
31. His behaviors are predictive of his future.
32. … is convinced that … 。。。确信。。。
33. Our newly elected CEO is convinced that our strategic partnership with that company is bound to bear fruit in the years to come.
34. Contrary to … 与… 相反的是
35. Contrary to conventional wisdom, the success of an individual is generally measured by the possession of wealth.
36. Contrary to what I had initially thought, individual universities across this school district are under-funded/under-financed.
37. South Korea is a semi-colonial country.
38. white elephant 白象，大而无用的东西
39. sacred cow 神圣的东西
40. The Chinese Communist Party is a sacred cow in China.