Changsha, also known as Xingcheng, was first established about 2400 years ago by Chu Kingdom during the periods of Spring and Autumn and the Waring Sates. After its establishment, Changsha as a major city in Southern China never changes its name and geographical position. During the dynasties of Tang, Song, Ming and Qing, Changsha flourished in its economy and culture. In the early and middle reign of Qing Dynasty, Changsha became one of four largest producers of rice in China. Since 1664 AD, Changsha has been the capital of Hunan Province. After the People's Republic of China was built, Changsha was appointed by the State Council as one of the first 24 Cities of Historical and Cultural Fame.
Historical and cultural relics are scattered over Changsha, including Mawangdui Han Tombs reputed as a world miracle, Four-goat Square Vessel, a masterpiece in history of bronze casting of ancient China, bamboo slips of Wu Kingdom in the Period of Three Kingdoms, and Tongguan Kiln, cradle of glazed colorful ceramics of Tang Dynasty, and the thousands of years old Yuelu Academy, etc.
Changsha as a gathering place of talents since the ancient time is where many famous persons have left their footprints like the politician Jia Yi (200-168 BC), the poet-sage Du Fu (712-770 AD), the Neo-confucianist Zhu Xi (1130-1200 AD), the educator Zhang Shi (1133-1180 AD), the thinkers of Wang Fuzhi (1619-1692 AD) and Wei Yuan (1794-1857 AD).
Additionally, modern democratic revolutionists of Huang Xing (1874-1916 AD), Song Jiaoren (1882-1913 AD), and Cai E (1882-1916AD) made great achievements in overturning imperialist reign and building the republic regime. In contemporary history, proletariat revolutionists of Mao Zedong, Cai Hesen, He Shuheng and Liu Shaoqi, et al, have studied here and pitched in the revolutionary cause, whose influence radiated from here over China.
Ever since the Western Han Dynasty, Taiping Street has been the place where Changsha Culture flourishes. Once on the street were located Nansi Temple of the Six Dynasties, Changsha Government Offices during the Tang Dynasty, Ancient Tianzhu Nunnery, Guansheng Temple and Kaiyuan Palace, etc, as well as the Former Residence of Jiayi, which was the headstream of Hunanese Culture.
Since the early reign of Qing Dynasty, banks, inns, stalls and shops were set up on the street, which mainly traded edible oil, salt, pigments, figured gauze, southern produces, and aquatic products. During the reign of Emperor Xianfeng of Qing Dynasty, many shops well-known near and far like Qianyisheng Grain Depot, Lisheng Salt Shop, Yanglongtai Nails Workshop and Laotongyi Lacquer Shop were doing business on the street. During the late Qing Dynasty, the Jiangsu Guild Hall and Jiangning Guild Hall were set up on the street in addition to financial institutions like the Farmers Bank and Wanshunxiang Money Shop, etc. Before the Revolution of 1911, many revolutionaries and constitutionalists also installed their secret offices on the street.
The street layout of Ming and Qing Dynasties are basically kept intact on Taiping Street, for which the street was honored by Changsha Municipal People's Government as a Historical and Cultural Street. In 2006, the Changsha Municipal People's Government made a large investment in renovating the street and opened in 2007. The Taiping Street today stretches to Wuyi Road to the north and Jiefang West Road to the south , totaling about 380m in length.