新疆的人口发展(双语全文)

2021.09.26

国务院新闻办公室9月26日发表《新疆的人口发展》白皮书。

 

以下为白皮书双语全文:

新疆的人口发展
Xinjiang Population Dynamics and Data

中华人民共和国
国务院新闻办公室
2021年9月
The State Council Information Office of
the People’s Republic of China
September 2021

 

目录
Contents

前言
Preface

一、新疆人口发展的历史
I. Population Growth in Xinjiang

二、新疆人口的现状
II. Latest Demographics of Xinjiang

三、维吾尔族人口的发展
III. Demographic Changes in the Uygur Population

四、新疆人口发展的现实必然性
IV. Factors Contributing to Xinjiang’s Demographic Development

五、新疆人口发展的趋势
V. Xinjiang’s Population Prospects

六、关于境外反华势力炒作的几个问题
VI. Falsehoods Fabricated by Anti-China Forces

结束语
Conclusion

 

前言
Preface

 

人口是社会生活的主体,是人类社会存在和发展的前提。人类的一切经济社会活动都与人口密切相关,人口发展关乎经济发展、社会和谐、民族兴衰、国家安全。
A healthy population is essential for the existence and development of human society. All economic and social activities are closely related to population. Its growth influences economic and social development, and national security and prosperity.

新疆地处中国西北、亚欧大陆腹地,自古以来就是多民族聚居地区。公元前60年,西汉中央政权在新疆地区设立西域都护府,标志着新疆地区正式纳入中国版图。2000多年来,新疆地区众多民族经过诞育、分化、交融,形成了“你中有我、我中有你”的和合共生关系和多元一体格局。
Lying in northwest China and central Eurasia, Xinjiang has been a place inhabited by multiple ethnic groups since ancient times. In 60 BC, the Western Han Dynasty established the Western Regions Frontier Command to govern the Xinjiang area, officially incorporating the area into the Chinese territory. Over the following 2,000 years and more, various ethnic groups have emerged, divided and mixed there. Today they live together in harmony and have formed a diverse unity.

中华人民共和国成立前,新疆经济社会发展落后,人口规模小,人口素质低,人均预期寿命短。1949年新中国成立后,新疆人口特别是少数民族人口数量快速增长,人口素质不断提升,人均预期寿命大幅提高。今日新疆,经济社会全面发展,社会大局持续稳定,各族人民安居乐业,人口发展均衡健康。
Work to remedy the backward economic and social situation in Xinjiang began immediately after the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949. The population of Xinjiang, particularly that of its ethnic minorities, has grown fast in both size and quality, and life expectancy has seen a substantial increase. Today, the region enjoys rapid growth in all areas and a stable and secure society. The ethnic groups there live in peace and contentment, and its population is experiencing healthy and balanced development.

 

一、新疆人口发展的历史
I. Population Growth in Xinjiang

新中国成立前,新疆生产力水平低下,生产方式落后,各族人民深受外国侵略势力、封建剥削阶级和宗教特权阶层的压迫,生活极端困苦,生命毫无保障,人口增长缓慢。据考证,从公元前60年到公元18世纪中期的1800多年间,新疆地区人口一直没有突破100万。受战乱等因素影响,1762年设立伊犁将军时,新疆人口不足30万。1884年,新疆建省。《湘军志》记载,1887年新疆人口183.9万人。1949年新疆和平解放时,人口达到433.34万人。
Before the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the mode of production in Xinjiang was backward and its productivity was low. Oppressed by foreign invaders, feudal exploiters, and a privileged religious hierarchy, people of all ethnic origins in the region led an extremely hard life with little security.
The population grew very slowly. Historical data show that the population in this vast region never exceeded one million during the 1,800 years from 60 BC to the mid-18th century. When the Qing government set up the post of Ili General as governor of the region in 1762, the local population was less than 300,000, mainly because of the turmoil of war. The region became a province during the Qing Dynasty in 1884. According to Records of the Xiang Army, the population in Xinjiang was 1.84 million in 1887. It had grown to 4.33 million by the time of the peaceful liberation in 1949.

新中国成立后,新疆人口发展进入崭新的历史时期。随着经济社会的发展、人民生活水平的提高,特别是医疗卫生条件的改善,新疆人口死亡率快速下降,自然增长率大幅上升。在国家大力开发建设边疆、促进民族地区加快发展等方针政策的引领下,大批知识分子和青年积极响应国家号召奔赴新疆,支援边疆建设。在人口自然增长与人口流入双重因素的作用下,新疆人口迅速增长。1953年第一次全国人口普查数据显示,新疆人口达到478.36万人;1964年第二次全国人口普查数据显示,新疆人口总量727.01万人,11年间,新疆人口增加248.65万人,年均增长率3.88%。到1978年中国实行改革开放前,新疆人口总量已增加到1233.01万人,比1949年净增799.67万人,年均增长率3.67%。
Xinjiang entered a new period of rapid population growth after the founding of the PRC. On the one hand, following its economic and social development, living standards and health care improved, so that the mortality rate fell rapidly and the population growth accelerated markedly. On the other, large numbers of intellectuals and young people streamed into Xinjiang from other parts of the country in response to the government’s call to support the development of border areas and areas with large ethnic minority populations. According to data from the first national census conducted in 1953, Xinjiang had a population of 4.78 million, and by the time the second national census was conducted in 1964, its population had increased to 7.27 million, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.88 percent. The number had grown to 12.33 million by the time China launched reform and opening up in 1978, an increase of 8 million compared to 1949, with a CAGR of 3.67 percent.

1978年后,新疆人口进入稳步增长阶段。根据全国人口普查数据,1982年新疆人口总量1308.15万人,1990年增加到1515.69万人,净增207.54万人,年均增长率1.86%;2000年达到1845.95万人,比1990年净增330.26万人,年均增长率1.99%。
Xinjiang’s population continued to grow steadily after 1978. According to data from national censuses, the region had 13.08 million people in 1982, then up by 2.08 million to 15.16 million in 1990 with a CAGR of 1.86 percent, and up by a further 3.3 million to 18.46 million in 2000 with a CAGR of 1.99 percent.

21世纪以来,新疆人口进入平稳增长阶段。2010年第六次全国人口普查数据显示,新疆人口达到2181.58万人,比2000年增加335.63万人,年均增长率1.68%;2020年第七次全国人口普查初步汇总数据显示,新疆人口达到2585.23万人,比2010年增加403.65万人,年均增长率1.71%。2000年至2020年这一阶段,新疆人口增长有所放缓,但年均增长率仍比全国平均水平高出1.15个百分点。
The steady growth trend has continued into the 21st century. According to data from the sixth national census conducted in 2010, the population in Xinjiang was 21.82 million, an increase of 3.36 million with a CAGR of 1.68 percent over 2000. Preliminary data from the seventh national census conducted in 2020 showed that the number increased by 4.04 million to reach 25.85 million with a CAGR of 1.71 percent. From 2000 to 2020, Xinjiang’s population growth slowed down, but was still 1.15 percentage points higher than the national average in CAGR.

从少数民族人口增长看,历次全国人口普查数据显示,1953年,新疆少数民族人口445.15万人,1964年增加到494.89万人,净增49.74万人,年均增长率0.97%;1982年779.75万人,与1964年相比,净增284.86万人,年均增长率2.56%;1990年946.15万人,与1982年相比,净增166.4万人,年均增长率2.45%;2000年1096.96万人,与1990年相比,净增150.81万人,年均增长率1.49%;2010年1298.59万人,与2000年相比,净增201.63万人,年均增长率1.7%;2020年1493.22万人,与2010年相比,净增194.63万人,年均增长率1.41%。
The national censuses show that the ethnic minority population in Xinjiang has grown rapidly over the past seven decades.

 

 

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