This is China's first guideline on education inspection and accountability which aims to ensure the country's educational laws, regulations, guidelines and policies can be properly implemented at the grassroots.
这里的accountability就是“问责”，也可以理解为“责任制”，《剑桥英语词典》的解释为“a situation in which someone is responsible for things that happen and can give a satisfactory reason for them”（有人能为发生的事情负责并给出一个令人满意的解释），这个词来源于accountable，常见的搭配是hold someone accountable（让某人承担责任），比如：He knew he would be held accountable for any flaws in the programming.（他知道自己要为程序中出现的所有失误负责）。
Local governments, related departments, schools and other educational institutions, as well as related staff members, shall be held accountable for activities that hamper the development of education, it said.
The guideline categorizes those activities into six types: lack of resolve and commitment in implementing national education policies, poor fulfillment of educational responsibilities, delay in completion of education tasks, irregularities in running educational institutions, major decreases in education quality and multiple safety concerns or opposition to education inspection.
Higher-level government inspection offices can hold lower-level governments and public schools accountable through public criticism, having talks and administrative punishment.
The main administrators of lower governments and public schools can be held accountable through having talks, name and shame, administrative punishment, or being handed over to law enforcement authorities and supervisory commissions, it said.
In addition to those punishments, private schools and tutoring institutions can be fined, ordered to stop student enrollment, and have their operating permits and business licenses revoked.
China has ensured that the salaries of public primary and middle school teachers are not lower than those of local government officials in the same region, the Ministry of Education said on Wednesday.
All local governments are working on establishing a mechanism for adjusting the salaries of teachers in primary and middle schools in line with those of government officials.
ease the burden of excessive homework and off-campus tutoring for students undergoing compulsory education
high-quality education system
evaluation of compulsory education quality
cultivate talent for the Party and the State